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Volume 16(3); September 2023
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Review Articles
Nine Hereditary Movement Disorders First Described in Asia: Their History and Evolution
Priya Jagota, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Zakiyah Aldaajani, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Yoshiko Nomura, Shoji Tsuji, Cid Diesta, Nobutaka Hattori, Osamu Onodera, Saeed Bohlega, Amir Al-Din, Shen-Yang Lim, Jee-Young Lee, Beomseok Jeon, Pramod Kumar Pal, Huifang Shang, Shinsuke Fujioka, Prashanth Lingappa Kukkle, Onanong Phokaewvarangkul, Chin-Hsien Lin, Cholpon Shambetova, Roongroj Bhidayasiri
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):231-247.   Published online June 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23065
  • 1,535 View
  • 181 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Clinical case studies and reporting are important to the discovery of new disorders and the advancement of medical sciences. Both clinicians and basic scientists play equally important roles leading to treatment discoveries for both cures and symptoms. In the field of movement disorders, exceptional observation of patients from clinicians is imperative, not just for phenomenology but also for the variable occurrences of these disorders, along with other signs and symptoms, throughout the day and the disease course. The Movement Disorders in Asia Task Force (TF) was formed to help enhance and promote collaboration and research on movement disorders within the region. As a start, the TF has reviewed the original studies of the movement disorders that were preliminarily described in the region. These include nine disorders that were first described in Asia: Segawa disease, PARK-Parkin, X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome, benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy, Kufor-Rakeb disease, tremulous dystonia associated with mutation of the calmodulin-binding transcription activator 2 gene, and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. We hope that the information provided will honor the original researchers and help us learn and understand how earlier neurologists and basic scientists together discovered new disorders and made advances in the field, which impact us all to this day.
Historical and More Common Nongenetic Movement Disorders From Asia
Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Priya Jagota, Pramod Kumar Pal, Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Shen-Yang Lim, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Zakiyah Aldaajani, Beomseok Jeon, Shinsuke Fujioka, Jee-Young Lee, Prashanth Lingappa Kukkle, Huifang Shang, Onanong Phokaewvarangkul, Cid Diesta, Cholpon Shambetova, Chin-Hsien Lin
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):248-260.   Published online June 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.22224
  • 1,190 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Nongenetic movement disorders are common throughout the world. The movement disorders encountered may vary depending on the prevalence of certain disorders across various geographical regions. In this paper, we review historical and more common nongenetic movement disorders in Asia. The underlying causes of these movement disorders are diverse and include, among others, nutritional deficiencies, toxic and metabolic causes, and cultural Latah syndrome, contributed by geographical, economic, and cultural differences across Asia. The industrial revolution in Japan and Korea has led to diseases related to environmental toxin poisoning, such as Minamata disease and β-fluoroethyl acetate-associated cerebellar degeneration, respectively, while religious dietary restriction in the Indian subcontinent has led to infantile tremor syndrome related to vitamin B12 deficiency. In this review, we identify the salient features and key contributing factors in the development of these disorders.
GBA1 Variants and Parkinson’s Disease: Paving the Way for Targeted Therapy
Young Eun Huh, Tatiana Usnich, Clemens R. Scherzer, Christine Klein, Sun Ju Chung
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):261-278.   Published online June 12, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23023
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  • 234 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Glucosylceramidase beta 1 (GBA1) variants have attracted enormous attention as the most promising and important genetic candidates for precision medicine in Parkinson’s disease (PD). A substantial correlation between GBA1 genotypes and PD phenotypes could inform the prediction of disease progression and promote the development of a preventive intervention for individuals at a higher risk of a worse disease prognosis. Moreover, the GBA1-regulated pathway provides new perspectives on the pathogenesis of PD, such as dysregulated sphingolipid metabolism, impaired protein quality control, and disrupted endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi trafficking. These perspectives have led to the development of novel disease-modifying therapies for PD targeting the GBA1-regulated pathway by repositioning treatment strategies for Gaucher’s disease. This review summarizes the current hypotheses on a mechanistic link between GBA1 variants and PD and possible therapeutic options for modulating GBA1-regulated pathways in PD patients.
Viewpoint
From Evidence to the Dish: A Viewpoint of Implementing a Thai-Style Mediterranean Diet for Parkinson’s Disease
Onanong Phokaewvarangkul, Nitinan Kantachadvanich, Vijittra Buranasrikul, Appasone Phoumindr, Saisamorn Phumphid, Priya Jagota, Roongroj Bhidayasiri
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):279-284.   Published online June 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23021
  • 781 View
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PDFSupplementary Material
Original Articles
KMT2B-Related Dystonia in Indian Patients With Literature Review and Emphasis on Asian Cohort
Debjyoti Dhar, Vikram V Holla, Riyanka Kumari, Neeharika Sriram, Jitender Saini, Ravi Yadav, Akhilesh Pandey, Nitish Kamble, Babylakshmi Muthusamy, Pramod Kumar Pal
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):285-294.   Published online June 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23035
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
aaMutations in the KMT2B gene have been identified in patients previously diagnosed with idiopathic dystonia. Literature on KMT2B-related dystonia is sparse in the Indian and Asian populations.
Methods
aaWe report seven patients with KMT2B-related dystonia studied prospectively from May 2021 to September 2022. Patients underwent deep clinical phenotyping and genetic testing by whole-exome sequencing (WES). A systematic literature search was performed to identify the spectrum of previously published KMT2B-related disorders in the Asian subcontinent.
Results
aaThe seven identified patients with KMT2B-related dystonia had a median age at onset of four years. The majority experienced onset in the lower limbs (n = 5, 71.4%), with generalization at a median duration of 2 years. All patients except one had complex phenotypes manifesting as facial dysmorphism (n = 4), microcephaly (n = 3), developmental delay (n = 3), and short stature (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities were present in four cases. WES revealed novel mutations in the KMT2B gene in all patients except one. Compared to the largest cohort of patients with KMT2B-related disorders, the Asian cohort, comprising 42 patients, had a lower prevalence of female patients, facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and MRI abnormalities. Protein-truncating variants were more prevalent than missense variants. While microcephaly and short stature were more common in patients with missense mutations, facial dysmorphism was more common in patients with truncating variants. Deep brain stimulation, performed in 17 patients, had satisfactory outcomes.
Conclusion
aaThis is the largest series of patients with KMT2B-related disorders from India, further expanding the clinico-genotypic spectrum. The extended Asian cohort emphasizes the unique attributes of this part of the world.
Cervical proprioception in Parkinson's disease and its correlation with manual dexterity function
Özlem Menevşe, Büşra Kepenek-Varol, Murat Gültekin, Sevil Bilgin
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):295-306.   Published online July 3, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23039
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Cervical proprioception plays a crucial role in posture and movement control. This study aimed to determine the relationships of cervical proprioception, cervical muscle strength and endurance with manual dexterity and hand strength in individuals with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Methods
Twenty individuals with PD (mean age: 63.9 years) and 20 healthy individuals as a control group (mean age: 61.9 years) were recruited. Cervical joint position error (JPE), static endurance of neck muscles, activation of deep cervical flexor muscles (Craniocervical Flexion Test, CCFT), manual dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test, PPT), cognitive and motor tasks of the PPT, finger tapping test (FTT), pinch strength, and grip strength were assessed.
Results
Cervical JPE was significantly higher in individuals with PD than in controls (p < 0.05). The strength and endurance of the cervical muscles were significantly decreased in individuals with PD (p < 0.05). Cervical JPE measurements were negatively correlated with PPT, cognitive and motor tasks of the PPT in individuals with PD (all p < 0.05). The endurance of cervical flexor muscles was negatively correlated with PPT and cognitive PPT scores in the PD group (p < 0.05). In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between cervical flexor endurance and hand strength in the PD group (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
Cervical proprioception and the strength and endurance of cervical muscles decrease in individuals with PD compared to healthy individuals. Impairment of cervical proprioception appears to be associated with poorer upper extremity performance. Detailed evaluation of the cervical region in PD may help determine the factors affecting upper extremity function.
Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Adults With Premanifest and Manifest Huntington’s Disease: A Systematic Review
Sasha Browning, Stephanie Holland, Ian Wellwood, Belinda Bilney
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):307-320.   Published online August 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23111
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
To systematically review and critically evaluate literature on spatiotemporal gait deviations in individuals with premanifest and manifest Huntington’s Disease (HD) in comparison with healthy cohorts.
Methods
We conducted a systematic review, guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute’s Manual for Evidence Synthesis and pre-registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. Eight electronic databases were searched. Studies comparing spatiotemporal footstep parameters in adults with premanifest and manifest HD to healthy controls were screened, included and critically appraised by independent reviewers. Data on spatiotemporal gait changes and variability were extracted and synthesised. Meta-analysis was performed on gait speed, cadence, stride length and stride length variability measures.
Results
We screened 2,721 studies, identified 1,245 studies and included 25 studies (total 1,088 participants). Sample sizes ranged from 14 to 96. Overall, the quality of the studies was assessed as good, but reporting of confounding factors was often unclear. Meta-analysis found spatiotemporal gait deviations in participants with HD compared to healthy controls, commencing in the premanifest stage. Individuals with premanifest HD walk significantly slower (-0.17 m/s; 95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.22, -0.13]), with reduced cadence (-6.63 steps/min; 95% CI [-10.62, -2.65]) and stride length (-0.09 m; 95% CI [-0.13, -0.05]). Stride length variability was also increased in premanifest cohorts by 2.18% (95% CI [0.69, 3.68]), with these changes exacerbated in participants with manifest disease.
Conclusion
Findings suggest individuals with premanifest and manifest HD display significant spatiotemporal footstep deviations. Clinicians could monitor individuals in the premanifest stage of disease for gait changes to identify the onset of Huntington’s symptoms.
Case Report
Rapid-Onset Dystonia and Parkinsonism in a Patient With Gaucher Disease
Ellen Hertz, Grisel Lopez, Jens Lichtenberg, Dietrich Haubenberger, Nahid Tayebi, Mark Hallett, Ellen Sidransky
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):321-324.   Published online June 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23074
  • 941 View
  • 72 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Biallelic mutations in GBA1 cause the lysosomal storage disorder Gaucher disease, and carriers of GBA1 variants have an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is still unknown whether GBA1 variants are also associated with other movement disorders. We present the case of a woman with type 1 Gaucher disease who developed acute dystonia and parkinsonism at 35 years of age during a recombinant enzyme infusion treatment. She developed severe dystonia in all extremities and a bilateral pill-rolling tremor that did not respond to levodopa treatment. Despite the abrupt onset of symptoms, neither Sanger nor whole genome sequencing revealed pathogenic variants in ATP1A3 associated with rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP). Further examination showed hyposmia and presynaptic dopaminergic deficits in [18F]-DOPA PET, which are commonly seen in PD but not in RDP. This case extends the spectrum of movement disorders reported in patients with GBA1 mutations, suggesting an intertwined phenotype.
Letters to the editor
Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation for Refractory Celiac-Related Myoclonus
Jinyoung Youn, Elizabeth Slow, Robert Chen, Andres M. Lozano, Alfonso Fasano
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):325-327.   Published online June 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23006
  • 724 View
  • 53 Download
PDFSupplementary Material
Apomorphine Monotherapy for Parkinson’s Disease: A Neglected Option?
Clément Desjardins, Christelle Nilles, David Devos, Emmanuel Roze
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):328-330.   Published online June 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23057
  • 895 View
  • 73 Download
PDFSupplementary Material
Gravitational syncope induced by rising elevators in a Parkinson’s disease patient
Sun-Woo Sohn, Dallah Yoo, Tae-Beom Ahn
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):331-332.   Published online June 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23076
  • 503 View
  • 28 Download
PDFSupplementary Material
Clinical and Genetic Features of Huntington’s Disease Patients From Republic of Serbia: A Single-Center Experience
Nikola Kresojević, Ivana Perović, Iva Stanković, Aleksandra Tomić, Milica Jecˇmenica Lukic´, Vladana Marković, Tanja Stojković, Gorana Mandić, Milena Janković, Ana Marjanović, Marija Branković, Ivana Novaković, Igor Petrović, Nataša Dragašević, Elka Stefanova, Marina Svetel, Vladimir Kostić
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):333-335.   Published online June 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23028
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  • 55 Download
PDF
Pisa Syndrome in Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Sandeep Kaur, Amit Shankar Singh, Sudesh Prabhakar, Jeenendra Prakash Singhvi, Harpreet Singh Mann, Arun Kaul
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):336-338.   Published online July 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23052
  • 512 View
  • 30 Download
PDFSupplementary Material
A Novel Variant of GCH1 in Dopa-Responsive Dystonia With Oculogyric Crises and Intrafamilial Phenotypic Heterogeneity
Taewoo Kim, Su Hyeon Ha, Dallah Yoo, Kyung Sun Park, Tae-Beom Ahn
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):339-342.   Published online July 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23085
  • 520 View
  • 33 Download
PDFSupplementary Material
Dystonic Opisthotonus in Kufor-Rakeb Syndrome: Expanding the Phenotypic and Genotypic Spectrum
Sandeep Gurram, Vikram V Holla, Riyanka Kumari, Debjyoti Dhar, Nitish Kamble, Ravi Yadav, Babylakshmi Muthusamy, Pramod Kumar Pal
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):343-346.   Published online July 25, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23098
  • 607 View
  • 68 Download
PDFSupplementary Material

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders