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Original Article Comparative Olfactory Profiles in Parkinson’s disease and Drug-Induced Parkinsonism
In Hee Kwak1,2, Young Eun Kim1,2corresp_icon, Suk Yun Kang3, Joong Seob Lee4, Jeongjae Lee1,2, Min Seung Kim3, Dong A Yea1,2, Hyeo-il Ma1,2corresp_icon

DOI: [Accepted]
Published online: October 6, 2023
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1Department of Neurology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, South Korea
2Hallym Neurological Institute, Hallym University, Anyang, South Korea
3Department of Neurology, Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hwaseong, South Korea
4Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, South Korea
Corresponding author:  Young Eun Kim, Tel: +82-31-380-3740, Fax: +82-31-380-3748, 
Hyeo-il Ma, Tel: +82-31-380-3740, Fax: +82-31-380-3748, 
Received: 29 May 2023   • Revised: 21 August 2023   • Accepted: 6 October 2023

Drug-induced Parkinsonism (DIP) stands as a frequently encountered diagnostic possibility when considering Parkinson’s disease (PD). While olfactory dysfunction is a common clinical feature in PD, the comparison of olfactory function between two conditions remains insufficient. This study aimed to compare the olfactory function, including threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI) profiles between PD and DIP.
Consecutive patients with drug-naïve PD (n=78) or DIP (n=31) confirmed through dopamine transporter image were enrolled in this study. The YSK olfactory function (YOF) test composed of TDI domains culturally familiar odorants to Koreans, was administered to all patients.
In the study population, the patients with DIP were significantly older than the patients with PD. Over 70% of patients in each group had hyposmia or anosmia, and there was no significant difference in the occurrence of olfactory dysfunction between the two groups. In addition, there were no differences in the total YOF score and threshold score between the two groups. Meanwhile, the PD group had a significantly lower discrimination and identification score compared to the DIP group, after adjusting for age, sex, the existence of diabetes, disease duration, and cognitive function.
This study demonstrated that detailed olfactory profiles are different in PD and DIP, even though olfactory dysfunction can be observed in both conditions.

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JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders