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JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders

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5 "Cognition"
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Original Articles
Association between Olfactory Deficit and Motor and Cognitive Function in Parkinson’s Disease
Han Soo Yoo, Seok Jong Chung, Yang Hyun Lee, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H. Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(2):133-141.   Published online April 6, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.19082
  • 5,995 View
  • 235 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
To investigate whether baseline olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients is associated with baseline and longitudinal motor and cognitive function.
Methods
We recruited 228 drug-naïve PD patients who were followed for a mean of 6 years. Patients underwent the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CCSIT), a neuropsychological test, and N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane positron emission tomography within 6 months of the baseline evaluation. Olfactory dysfunction was categorized as normosmia (CCSIT score ≥ 9), hyposmia (CCSIT score 5–8), and anosmia (CCSIT score ≤ 4). During the follow-up period, we investigated changes in the levodopa-equivalent dose (LED) and the occurrence of wearing-off, levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and dementia.
Results
Among the PD patients, 80.7% were hyposmic at the time of diagnosis, and 26.1% were anosmic. Baseline olfactory dysfunction was not associated with either initial parkinsonian motor symptoms or with the longitudinal LED increment and motor complications. Meanwhile, the anosmic group had lower baseline scores on the Korea version of the Boston Naming Test and Stroop color reading test than the normosmic and hyposmic groups. The anosmic group exhibited a higher rate of conversion to dementia than the normosmic [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 3.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–14.72] and hyposmic (adjusted HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.15–5.32) PD groups, regardless of baseline motor deficits and cognitive status.
Conclusion
Baseline olfactory dysfunction was not associated with motor deficits and complications, but it was associated with cognitive dysfunction and prognosis, suggesting that severe olfactory impairment may reflect early cortical involvement, probably in the frontotemporal region, and rapid spreading of Lewy body pathology.
Cognition, Olfaction and Uric Acid in Early de novo Parkinson’s Disease
Hwa Reung Lee, Joong Hyun Park, Sang Won Han, Jong Sam Baik
J Mov Disord. 2018;11(3):139-144.   Published online September 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.18037
  • 5,051 View
  • 134 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Cognitive impairment is one of the nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD), and olfactory dysfunction is used as a marker to detect premotor stages of PD. Serum uric acid (sUA) levels have been found to be a risk factor for PD. Our objective in this study was to examine whether sUA levels are associated with cognitive changes and olfactory dysfunction in early de novo PD patients.
Methods
The study participants included 196 de novo PD patients. We assessed cognitive function by the Korean versions of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and assessed olfactory function by the Korean version of the Sniffin’ Sticks test.
Results
The mean sUA level was 4.7 mg/dL and was significantly lower in women than in men. Cognitive scores were lower in women, suggesting that sUA levels were related to cognitive function. The olfactory functions were not related to sUA level but were clearly associated with cognitive scores. Olfactory threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification were all significantly related to cognitive scores.
Conclusion
We conclude that lower sUA levels were associated with cognitive impairment, not olfactory dysfunction, in de novo PD patients. This finding suggests that UA is neuroprotective as an antioxidant in the cognitive function of PD patients.
Prospective Characterization of Cognitive Function in Typical and ‘Brainstem Predominant’Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Phenotypes
Young-Eun C Lee, David R Williams, Jacqueline F I Anderson
J Mov Disord. 2018;11(2):72-77.   Published online May 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.17067
  • 5,719 View
  • 105 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Clinicopathological studies over the last decade have broadened the clinical spectrum of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) to include several distinct clinical syndromes. We examined the cognitive profiles of patients with PSP-Richardson’s syndrome (PSP-RS) and two atypical ‘brainstem predominant’ PSP phenotypes (PSP-parkinsonism, PSP-P; and PSP-pure akinesia with gait freezing, PSP-PAGF) using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery.
Methods
Fourteen patients diagnosed as PSP-RS, three patients with PSP-P and four patients with PSP-PAGF were assessed using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests.
Results
The typical PSP-RS subgroup demonstrated greater impairments in processing speed [t(19) = -4.10, p = 0.001 (d =1.66)] and executive function [t(19) = -2.63, p = 0.02 (d = 1.20)] compared to the ‘brainstem predominant’ PSP phenotype.
Conclusion
This is the first prospective study to demonstrate that PSP-RS and ‘brainstem predominant’ PSP phenotypes can be differentiated on cognitive grounds. These differences correspond with variations in pathological profiles reported in the literature.
Cognition and Visit-to-Visit Variability of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in De Novo Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Kyum-Yil Kwon, Seon Jong Pyo, Hye Mi Lee, Woo-Keun Seo, Seong-Beom Koh
J Mov Disord. 2016;9(3):144-151.   Published online September 21, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.16012
  • 11,260 View
  • 115 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
We sought to identify whether the characteristics of long-term visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) are related to baseline cognitive profiles in, Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Methods
We selected drug-naïve PD patients who visited our hospital at least 10 times with a baseline assessment of the Seoul neuropsychological battery. BP and HR were measured at each visit, and the variability of the systolic BP/diastolic BP (DBP) and HR was derived from the parameters of serial 10 office visits. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in PD patients was determined according to the proposed criteria with a cut-off value of z-score ≤ -2.
Results
Forty-seven patients with PD (mean follow-up duration = 22.3 months) were enrolled in the study. Compared with non-MCI PD patients, MCI PD patients revealed a significant increase in HR and/or variability in DBP.
Conclusion
This exploratory study showed that baseline cognition in drug-naïve PD patients might be related to the visit-to-visit variability of DBP and/or HR.
Review Article
Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid β1-42, Tau, and Alpha-Synuclein Predict the Heterogeneous Progression of Cognitive Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease
Ju-Hee Kang
J Mov Disord. 2016;9(2):89-96.   Published online May 25, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.16017
  • 18,034 View
  • 224 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with heterogeneous pathological and clinical features. Cognitive dysfunction, a frequent non-motor complication, is a risk factor for poor prognosis and shows inter-individual variation in its progression. Of the clinical studies performed to identify biomarkers of PD progression, the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study is the largest study that enrolled drug-naïve and very early stage PD patients. The baseline characteristics of the PPMI cohort were recently published. The diagnostic utility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, including alpha-synuclein (α-syn), total tau, phosphorylated tau at Thr181, and amyloid β1-42, was not satisfactory. However, the baseline data on CSF biomarkers in the PPMI study suggested that the measurement of the CSF biomarkers enables the prediction of future cognitive decline in PD patients, which was consistent with previous studies. To prove the hypothesis that the interaction between Alzheimer’s pathology and α-syn pathology is important to the progression of cognitive dysfunction in PD, longitudinal observational studies must be followed. In this review, the neuropathological nature of heterogeneous cognitive decline in PD is briefly discussed, followed by a summarized interpretation of baseline CSF biomarkers derived from the data in the PPMI study. The combination of clinical, biochemical, genetic and imaging biomarkers of PD constitutes a feasible strategy to predict the heterogeneous progression of PD.

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders