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Letter to the editor
Deep Brain Stimulation in Advanced Parkinson’s Disease: An Uncommon Case of Allergic Encephalitis
Jyun-Yi Chen, Yen-Chung Chen, Shey-Lin Wu
Received November 16, 2023  Accepted April 12, 2024  Published online April 15, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23237    [Accepted]
  • 267 View
  • 6 Download
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Review Article
Diagnosis and Clinical Features in Autoimmune-Mediated Movement Disorders
Pei-Chen Hsieh, Yih-Ru Wu
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(2):95-105.   Published online May 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.21077
  • 4,304 View
  • 539 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Movement disorders are common manifestations in autoimmune-mediated encephalitis. This group of diseases is suspected to be triggered by infection or neoplasm. Certain phenotypes correlate with specific autoantibody-related neurological disorders, such as orofacial-lingual dyskinesia with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis and faciobrachial dystonic seizures with leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 encephalitis. Early diagnosis and treatment, especially for autoantibodies targeting neuronal surface antigens, can improve prognosis. In contrast, the presence of autoantibodies against intracellular neuronal agents warrants screening for underlying malignancy. However, early clinical diagnosis is challenging because these diseases can be misdiagnosed. In this article, we review the distinctive clinical phenotypes, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and current treatment options for autoimmune-mediated encephalitis.
Case Reports
Parainfectious Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein-Associated Meningoencephalitis
Jae Young Joo, Dallah Yoo, Tae-Beom Ahn
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(1):66-70.   Published online November 25, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.21115
  • 4,252 View
  • 281 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Movement disorders associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) autoantibodies have rarely been reported as ataxia or tremors. A 32-year-old man with headache and fever, initially diagnosed with viral meningoencephalitis, showed gradual improvement with empirical treatment. Two weeks after the illness, he suddenly developed orofacial, tongue, and neck dyskinesia accompanied by oculomotor abnormalities, which developed into severe generalized choreoballism. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) showed signal hyperintensities in the bilateral globus pallidus interna. The clinical picture suggested an acute inflammatory trigger of secondary autoimmune encephalitis. The autoimmune antibody test was positive for GFAP, with the strongest reactivity in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) before treatment and decreased reactivity in serial CSF examinations during immunotherapy. Dyskinesia gradually improved to the extent that it could be controlled with only oral medications. This patient presented with parainfectious GFAP meningoencephalitis with distinctive clinical features and imaging findings.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Relapsing Autoimmune GFAP Astrocytopathy: Case Report
    Ekaterina O. Chekanova, Аlla А. Shabalina, Taras O. Simaniv, Rodion N. Konovalov, Larisa A. Dobrynina, Lyudmila A. Kalashnikova, Maria V. Gubanova, Maria N. Zakharova
    Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology.2024; 17(4): 89.     CrossRef
  • Comment on “Parainfectious Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein-Associated Meningoencephalitis”
    Byoung June Ahn, Kyum-Yil Kwon
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2022; 15(2): 187.     CrossRef
  • Re: Comment on “Parainfectious Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein-Associated Meningoencephalitis”
    Dallah Yoo, Tae-Beom Ahn
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2022; 15(2): 189.     CrossRef
Unilateral Negative Myoclonus Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis
Jin-Mo Park, Jin-Sung Park, Yong-Won Kim, Ho-Won Lee, Da-In Lee, Sung-Pa Park, Hyun Seok Song
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):49-52.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11009
  • 26,057 View
  • 58 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Various neurologic manifestations of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis have been reported on the literatures. Chorea, ballism, choreoathetosis and myoclonus were reported as movement disorders which might be related with brain lesion by HSV encephalitis, but negative myoclonus (NM) has never been reported before. NM can be characterized as a shock-like involuntary jerky movement caused by a sudden, brief interruption of muscle activity. We experienced a case of HSV encephalitis with NM in unilateral arm and leg. In polygraphic monitoring, electroencephalography (EMG) silent periods are 50–250 ms in duration with no detectable EMG correlate.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Epileptic negative myoclonus in herpes simplex virus encephalitis
    Neel Fotedar, James Dolbow, Madhura Layfield, Suraj Thyagaraj, Jonathan Zande
    Epileptic Disorders.2022; 24(2): 417.     CrossRef
  • Myoclonus in the critically ill: Diagnosis, management, and clinical impact
    Raoul Sutter, Anette Ristic, Stephan Rüegg, Peter Fuhr
    Clinical Neurophysiology.2016; 127(1): 67.     CrossRef
  • Chorée aiguë après encéphalite herpétique : réplication virale ou mécanisme immunologique ?
    H. Benrhouma, A. Nasri, I. Kraoua, H. Klaa, I. Turki, N. Gouider-Khouja
    Archives de Pédiatrie.2015; 22(9): 961.     CrossRef

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders