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Review Article
Environmental Risk Factors for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
Hee Kyung Park, Sindana D. Ilango, Irene Litvan
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(2):103-113.   Published online May 26, 2021
  • 10,619 View
  • 282 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Typically, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is clinically characterized by slow vertical saccades or supranuclear gaze palsy, levodopa-resistant parkinsonism with predominant axial symptoms, and cognitive executive impairment. Over the past decades, various PSP phenotypes, including PSP with predominant parkinsonism, PSP with corticobasal syndrome, PSP with progressive gait freezing, and PSP with predominant frontal dysfunction, have been identified from pathologically confirmed cases. Expanding knowledge led to new diagnostic criteria for PSP that with increased disease awareness led to increased PSP prevalence estimates. The identification of environmental and modifiable risk factors creates an opportunity to intervene and delay the onset of PSP or slow disease progression. To date, despite the increasing number of publications assessing risk factors for PSP, few articles have focused on environmental and lifestyle risk factors for this disorder. In this article, we reviewed the literature investigating the relationship between PSP and several environmental and other modifiable lifestyle risk factors. In our review, we found that exposures to toxins related to diet, metals, well water, and hypertension were associated with increased PSP risk. In contrast, higher education and statins may be protective. Further case-control studies are encouraged to determine the exact role of these factors in the etiopathogenesis of PSP, which in turn would inform strategies to prevent and reduce the burden of PSP.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Parkinson’s Disease is Predominantly a Genetic Disease
    Shen-Yang Lim, Christine Klein
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2024; 14(3): 467.     CrossRef
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy, a case report
    A. Ortiz, F. Troya, J. de Vera, E. Vázquez
    Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología (English Edition).2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Syndrome: An Overview
    Eduardo Ichikawa-Escamilla, Rodrigo A. Velasco-Martínez, Laura Adalid-Peralta
    IBRO Neuroscience Reports.2024; 16: 598.     CrossRef
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy’s economical burden: the use and costs of healthcare resources in a large health provider in Israel
    Yael Barer, Raanan Cohen, Meital Grabarnik-John, Xiaolan Ye, Jorge Zamudio, Tanya Gurevich, Gabriel Chodick
    Journal of Neurology.2023; 270(8): 3770.     CrossRef
  • The Pesticide Chlordecone Promotes Parkinsonism-like Neurodegeneration with Tau Lesions in Midbrain Cultures and C. elegans Worms
    Valeria Parrales-Macias, Patrick P. Michel, Aurore Tourville, Rita Raisman-Vozari, Stéphane Haïk, Stéphane Hunot, Nicolas Bizat, Annie Lannuzel
    Cells.2023; 12(9): 1336.     CrossRef
  • The prevalence and incidence of progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Shane Lyons, Dominic Trépel, Tim Lynch, Richard Walsh, Sean O’Dowd
    Journal of Neurology.2023; 270(9): 4451.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of Genetic and MRI Changes, Blood Markers, and Risk Factors in a Twin Pair Discordant of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
    Aliz Persely, Beatrix Beszedics, Krisztina Paloczi, Marton Piroska, Amirreza Alijanpourotaghsara, David Strelnikov, Arsalan Vessal, Helga Szabo, Anita Hernyes, Luca Zoldi, Zsofia Jokkel, Andrea Fekete, Janos Juhasz, Nora Makra, Dora Szabo, Edit Buzas, Ada
    Medicina.2023; 59(10): 1696.     CrossRef
  • Dementia Prevention in Clinical Practice
    Kellyann Niotis, Kiarra Akiyoshi, Caroline Carlton, Richard Isaacson
    Seminars in Neurology.2022; 42(05): 525.     CrossRef
  • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy in 2022: recent developments and an eye to the future
    Shane Lyons, Sean O'Dowd, Richard Walsh, Tim Lynch
    Advances in Clinical Neuroscience & Rehabilitation.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Brief communication
Risk Factors for Falls in Patients with de novo Parkinson’s Disease: A Focus on Motor and Non-Motor Symptoms
Kyum-Yil Kwon, Mina Lee, Hyunjin Ju, Kayeong Im
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(2):142-145.   Published online May 29, 2020
  • 5,631 View
  • 181 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
We aimed to identify risk factors for falls in patients with de novo Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods Forty-six patients with de novo PD were retrospectively included in the study. We assessed details on the patients’ motor symptoms as well as non-motor symptoms using several representative scales for global cognition, depression, fatigue, and dysautonomia. Fallers and non-fallers were identified according to their history of falls during the preceding year. Results Twenty-two patients (45.8%) with de novo PD had a history of falls. Compared with the non-faller group, the faller group exhibited higher scores for postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD), anxiety, fatigue, total dysautonomia, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and thermoregulatory dysfunction. Moreover, logistic regression analysis showed that falling was positively correlated with anxiety and gastrointestinal symptoms but negatively associated with the tremor scores. Conclusion Our findings suggest that falling in patients with de novo PD is significantly associated with PIGD/non-tremor symptoms, anxiety, and gastrointestinal dysfunction.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Vestibular dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease: a neglected topic
    Meilin Gui, Lingling Lv, Lixia Qin, Chunyu Wang
    Frontiers in Neurology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association Between Gait and Dysautonomia in Patients With De Novo Parkinson’s Disease: Forward Gait Versus Backward Gait
    Seon-Min Lee, Mina Lee, Eun Ji Lee, Rae On Kim, Yongduk Kim, Kyum-Yil Kwon
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2023; 16(1): 59.     CrossRef
  • Fluctuations in Upper and Lower Body Movement during Walking in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus and Parkinson’s Disease Assessed by Motion Capture with a Smartphone Application, TDPT-GT
    Chifumi Iseki, Shou Suzuki, Tadanori Fukami, Shigeki Yamada, Tatsuya Hayasaka, Toshiyuki Kondo, Masayuki Hoshi, Shigeo Ueda, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Masatsune Ishikawa, Shigenori Kanno, Kyoko Suzuki, Yukihiko Aoyagi, Yasuyuki Ohta
    Sensors.2023; 23(22): 9263.     CrossRef
  • Associations of cognitive dysfunction with motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with de novo Parkinson’s disease
    Kyum-Yil Kwon, Suyeon Park, Rae On Kim, Eun Ji Lee, Mina Lee
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Initial Vestibular Function May Be Associated with Future Postural Instability in Parkinson’s Disease
    Jeong Ho Park, Min Seung Kim, Suk Yun Kang
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2022; 11(19): 5608.     CrossRef
  • Association of fall risk factors and non-motor symptoms in patients with early Parkinson’s disease
    Kyum-Yil Kwon, Suyeon Park, Eun Ji Lee, Mina Lee, Hyunjin Ju
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Understanding the Influence of Pain and Fatigue On Physical performance, Fear of Falling and Falls in People With Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Study
    Hanan Khalil, Nesreen Alissa, Alham Al-Sharman, Islam E’leimat, Majdi Al Qawasmeh, Khalid El-Salem
    Neurodegenerative Disease Management.2021; 11(2): 113.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of Risk Factors for Falls among Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
    Jacek Wilczyński, Magdalena Ścipniak, Kacper Ścipniak, Kamil Margiel, Igor Wilczyński, Rafał Zieliński, Piotr Sobolewski, Stefano Brunelli
    BioMed Research International.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
Original Article
Falls and Their Associated Risks in Parkinson’s Disease Patients in Nigeria
Temitope Hannah Farombi, Mayowa O Owolabi, Adesola Ogunniyi
J Mov Disord. 2016;9(3):160-165.   Published online September 21, 2016
  • 18,873 View
  • 232 Download
  • 17 Web of Science
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Falls are a devastating consequence of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and are due to motor imbalance. However, the frequency of falls and their risk factors among Nigerians with PD is not known despite the significant increase in PD cases in the country. To assess fall risk factors and frequency in Nigerian PD patients.
Using an analytical design to compare falling versus non-falling patients, 81 PD patients were assessed for clinical factors, frequency of falls, and candidate risk factors for falls according to the Tinetti Balance and Gait, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale subsection 1, and Timed Up and Go Tests. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were performed at the 95% confidence level.
The mean age of participants was 65.6 ± 9.7 years. Falls were about three times (p < 0.001) more common in PD patients. Of the falling patients, 67.7% sustained injuries, 67.7% had recurrent falls and 44.9% admitted to having a fear of falling. The independent statistical predictors of fall were fear of falling [odds ratio (OR): 3.86], disease severity (OR: 1.09) and disease duration (OR: 1.01).
The frequency of falls in PD patients was significantly higher when compared with the healthy adult population, and the modifiable predictor was fear of falling with a potential to significantly reduce falls when strategically addressed.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Concept Mapping to Define Components for an Occupation-Based Intervention for Parkinson’s Disease and Anxiety
    Christopher J. Lovegrove, Ingrid H.W.M. Sturkenboom, Jonathan Marsden, Katrina Bannigan
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2024; 14(1): 181.     CrossRef
  • α‐Synuclein aggregation causes muscle atrophy through neuromuscular junction degeneration
    Qiumei Yang, Yanyan Wang, Chunsong Zhao, Shimin Pang, Jing Lu, Piu Chan
    Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.2023; 14(1): 226.     CrossRef
  • Toxin Induced Parkinsonism and Hospitalization Related Adverse Outcome Mitigation for Parkinson’s Disease: A Comprehensive Review
    Kenneth R. Dalton, Charles J. Kidd, Nawaz Hack
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(3): 1074.     CrossRef
  • Smart Assistance to Reduce the Fear of Falling in Parkinson Patients Using IoT
    Pratik Bhattacharjee, Suparna Biswas, Samiran Chattopadhyay, Sandip Roy, Sandip Chakraborty
    Wireless Personal Communications.2023; 130(1): 281.     CrossRef
    Fakhir Ansari
    Pakistan Journal of Rehabilitation.2023; 12(1): 84.     CrossRef
  • Frequency, pattern and predictors of cognitive impairments in patients with Parkinson’s disease using the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia
    Ewere Marie Ogbimi, Fatai Momodu Akemokwe, Olubunmi Ogunrin
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cognitive status and sleep quality can explain the fear of falling and fall history in people with Parkinson’s disease
    Nesreen Alissa, Reem Rehan, Alham Al-Sharman, Mariem Latrous, Ala’ S Aburub, Khalid El-Salem, Linzette Morris, Hanan Khalil
    International Journal of Rehabilitation Research.2023; 46(4): 338.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Disease Severity Mediates the Relationship between Stride Length and Speed and the Risk of Falling in Parkinson’s Disease
    Yun-Ru Lai, Chia-Yi Lien, Chih-Cheng Huang, Wei-Che Lin, Yueh-Sheng Chen, Chiun-Chieh Yu, Ben-Chung Cheng, Chia-Te Kung, Chien-Feng Kung, Yi-Fang Chiang, Yun-Ting Hung, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Cheng-Hsien Lu
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2022; 12(2): 192.     CrossRef
  • Avaliação do risco de quedas entre pessoas com doença de Parkinson
    Franciny da Silva, Angela Maria Alvarez, Simony Fabíola Lopes Nunes, Maria Eduarda Massari Silva, Silvia Maria Azevedo Dos Santos
    Escola Anna Nery.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sarcopenia in Patients With Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Yingying Cai, Fei Feng, Qianqian Wei, Zheng Jiang, Ruwei Ou, Huifang Shang
    Frontiers in Neurology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Peripheral vestibular system: Age-related vestibular loss and associated deficits
    Jennifer Coto, Carmen L. Alvarez, Ivette Cejas, Brett M. Colbert, Bonnie E. Levin, Joshua Huppert, Tatjana Rundek, Carey Balaban, Susan H. Blanton, David J. Lee, David Loewenstein, Michael Hoffer, Xue Zhong Liu
    Journal of Otology.2021; 16(4): 258.     CrossRef
  • Clinical correlates of sarcopenia and falls in Parkinson’s disease
    Danielle Pessoa Lima, Samuel Brito de Almeida, Janine de Carvalho Bonfadini, João Rafael Gomes de Luna, Madeleine Sales de Alencar, Edilberto Barreira Pinheiro-Neto, Antonio Brazil Viana-Júnior, Samuel Ranieri Oliveira Veras, Manoel Alves Sobreira-Neto, J
    PLOS ONE.2020; 15(3): e0227238.     CrossRef
  • Parkinson's Disease Research on the African Continent: Obstacles and Opportunities
    Marieke C. J. Dekker, Toumany Coulibaly, Soraya Bardien, Owen A. Ross, Jonathan Carr, Morenikeji Komolafe
    Frontiers in Neurology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Parkinson's disease in Nigeria: A review of published studies and recommendations for future research
    Oluwafemi G. Oluwole, Helena Kuivaniemi, Jonathan A. Carr, Owen A. Ross, Matthew O.B. Olaogun, Soraya Bardien, Morenikeji A. Komolafe
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2019; 62: 36.     CrossRef
  • Predictive Factors of Concerns about Falling in People with Parkinson’s Disease: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study
    Magnus Lindh-Rengifo, Stina B. Jonasson, Niklas Mattsson, Susann Ullén, Maria H. Nilsson
    Parkinson's Disease.2019; 2019: 1.     CrossRef

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