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Review Article
Emerging Concepts of Motor Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease
Seok Jong Chung, Jae Jung Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(3):171-184.   Published online August 31, 2020
  • 10,240 View
  • 310 Download
  • 32 Web of Science
  • 33 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) explains the differences between individuals in their susceptibility to AD-related pathologies. An enhanced CR may lead to less cognitive deficits despite severe pathological lesions. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is also a common neurodegenerative disease and is mainly characterized by motor dysfunction related to striatal dopaminergic depletion. The degree of motor deficits in PD is closely correlated to the degree of dopamine depletion; however, significant individual variations still exist. Therefore, we hypothesized that the presence of motor reserve (MR) in PD explains the individual differences in motor deficits despite similar levels of striatal dopamine depletion. Since 2015, we have performed a series of studies investigating MR in de novo patients with PD using the data of initial clinical presentation and dopamine transporter PET scan. In this review, we summarized the results of these published studies. In particular, some premorbid experiences (i.e., physical activity and education) and modifiable factors (i.e., body mass index and white matter hyperintensity on brain image studies) could modulate an individual’s capacity to tolerate PD pathology, which can be maintained throughout disease progression.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Veronica Pucci, Carolina Guerra, Amanda Barsi, Massimo Nucci, Sara Mondini
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.2024; 30(1): 11.     CrossRef
  • Hippocampal Perfusion Affects Motor and Cognitive Functions in Parkinson Disease: An Early Phase 18F‐FP‐CIT Positron Emission Tomography Study
    Min Young Chun, Seok Jong Chung, Su Hong Kim, Chan Wook Park, Seong Ho Jeong, Hye Sun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn, Yong Jeong, Yun Joong Kim
    Annals of Neurology.2024; 95(2): 388.     CrossRef
  • Differences in [123I]Ioflupane Striatal Binding Between African American and White Patients
    Juebin Huang, Kevin J. Sullivan, Vani Vijayakumar
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology.2024; 52(2): 137.     CrossRef
  • Plasma extracellular vesicle synaptic proteins as biomarkers of clinical progression in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Chien-Tai Hong, Chen-Chih Chung, Ruan-Ching Yu, Lung Chan
    eLife.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Plasma extracellular vesicle synaptic proteins as biomarkers of clinical progression in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Chien-Tai Hong, Chen-Chih Chung, Ruan-Ching Yu, Lung Chan
    eLife.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Considering the response in addition to the challenge – a narrative review in appraisal of a motor reserve framework
    Daniel Zeller, Shawn Hiew, Thorsten Odorfer, Carine Nguemeni
    Aging.2024; 16(6): 5772.     CrossRef
  • The greatest loss of unpleasant smells may be related to the risk of more severe PD symptoms
    Shih-Chi Chiu, Ting-Chun Fang, Hsin-Bei Lei, Yu-Hsuan Lin, Ming-Hong Chang, Yi-Jen Guo
    Frontiers in Neurology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Lifestyle Modulators of Neuroplasticity in Parkinson’s Disease: Evidence in Human Neuroimaging Studies
    Silvia Paola Caminiti, Silvia Gallo, Federico Menegon, Andrea Naldi, Cristoforo Comi, Giacomo Tondo
    CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets.2024; 23(5): 602.     CrossRef
  • Defining the concept of reserve in the motor domain: a systematic review
    Andreina Giustiniani, Angelo Quartarone
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Structural underpinnings and long-term effects of resilience in Parkinson’s disease
    Verena Dzialas, Merle C. Hoenig, Stéphane Prange, Gérard N. Bischof, Alexander Drzezga, Thilo van Eimeren
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Motor progression marker for newly diagnosed drug‐naïve patients with Parkinson's disease: A resting‐state functional MRI study
    Yanbing Hou, Lingyu Zhang, Ruwei Ou, Qianqian Wei, Xiaojing Gu, Kuncheng Liu, Junyu Lin, Tianmi Yang, Yi Xiao, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
    Human Brain Mapping.2023; 44(3): 901.     CrossRef
  • The Concept of Motor Reserve in Parkinson's Disease: New Wine in Old Bottles?
    Merle C. Hoenig, Verena Dzialas, Alexander Drzezga, Thilo van Eimeren
    Movement Disorders.2023; 38(1): 16.     CrossRef
  • Patterns of striatal dopamine depletion and motor deficits in de novo Parkinson’s disease
    Seong Ho Jeong, Chan Wook Park, Hye Sun Lee, Yun Joong Kim, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn, Seok Jong Chung
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2023; 130(1): 19.     CrossRef
  • Sex Differences in Brain Structure in de novo Parkinson’s Disease: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Neuroimaging Study
    Hui Li, Xuejia Jia, Min Chen, Xiuqin Jia, Qi Yang
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2023; 13(5): 785.     CrossRef
  • Exploring the Complex Phenotypes of Impaired Finger Dexterity in Mild-to-moderate Stage Parkinson’s Disease: A Time-Series Analysis
    Pattamon Panyakaew, Kotchakorn Duangjino, Apiwoot Kerddonfag, Teerit Ploensin, Krerk Piromsopa, Chanon Kongkamol, Roongroj Bhidayasiri
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2023; 13(6): 975.     CrossRef
  • Prevention of Falls in Parkinson's Disease: Guidelines and Gaps
    Richard Camicioli, Meg E. Morris, Frederico Pieruccini‐Faria, Manuel Montero‐Odasso, Surim Son, David Buzaglo, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff, Alice Nieuwboer
    Movement Disorders Clinical Practice.2023; 10(10): 1459.     CrossRef
  • The incidence of deep venous thrombosis in Parkinson’s disease
    Emine Afsin, Zeliha Coşgun, Ramazan Kurul, Şule Aydın Türkoğlu
    Neurological Research.2023; 45(11): 1050.     CrossRef
  • Clinical severity in Parkinson’s disease is determined by decline in cortical compensation
    Martin E Johansson, Ivan Toni, Roy P C Kessels, Bastiaan R Bloem, Rick C Helmich
    Brain.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Premorbid Educational Attainment and Long-Term Motor Prognosis in Parkinson’s Disease
    Seong Ho Jeong, Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Jin Ho Jung, Kyoungwon Baik, Yang Hyun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2022; 12(1): 129.     CrossRef
  • Parkinsonism and cerebrovascular disease
    Manisha Narasimhan, Raymond Schwartz, Glenda Halliday
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2022; 433: 120011.     CrossRef
  • Impact of α‐synuclein spreading on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway depends on the onset of the pathology
    Fanfan Sun, Armando G. Salinas, Severin Filser, Sonja Blumenstock, Jose Medina‐Luque, Jochen Herms, Carmelo Sgobio
    Brain Pathology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Premorbid cancer and motor reserve in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Yoon-Sang Oh, Sang-Won Yoo, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Kwang-Soo Lee, Joong-Seok Kim
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Behavioral Reserve in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia
    Su Hong Kim, Yae Ji Kim, Byung Hwa Lee, Peter Lee, Ji Hyung Park, Sang Won Seo, Yong Jeong
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Identifying the white matter structural network of motor reserve in early Parkinson's disease
    Yae Ji Kim, Chan Wook Park, Hye Won Shin, Hye Sun Lee, Yun Joong Kim, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn, Yong Jeong, Seok Jong Chung
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2022; 102: 108.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of disease progression between brain-predominant Parkinson's disease versus Parkinson's disease with body-involvement phenotypes
    Dong-Woo Ryu, Sang-Won Yoo, Yoon-Sang Oh, Kwang-Soo Lee, Seunggyun Ha, Joong-Seok Kim
    Neurobiology of Disease.2022; 174: 105883.     CrossRef
  • Genetically-informed prediction of short-term Parkinson’s disease progression
    Hossein J. Sadaei, Aldo Cordova-Palomera, Jonghun Lee, Jaya Padmanabhan, Shang-Fu Chen, Nathan E. Wineinger, Raquel Dias, Daria Prilutsky, Sandor Szalma, Ali Torkamani
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Potential Link Between Cognition and Motor Reserve in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease
    Seok Jong Chung, Yae Ji Kim, Yun Joong Kim, Hye Sun Lee, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee, Yong Jeong, Young H. Sohn
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2022; 15(3): 249.     CrossRef
  • Local striatal volume and motor reserve in drug-naïve Parkinson’s disease
    Seong Ho Jeong, Eun-Chong Lee, Seok Jong Chung, Hye Sun Lee, Jin Ho Jung, Young H. Sohn, Joon-Kyung Seong, Phil Hyu Lee
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture in treating Parkinson disease
    Wei Xu, Sha OuYang, Zhenhai Chi, ZhiQin Wang, DaoCheng Zhu, RiXin Chen, GenPing Zhong, FengTing Zhang, GuiQin Zhou, SiWei Duan, Lin Jiao
    Medicine.2021; 100(10): e25095.     CrossRef
  • Differences in cause and 12-month follow-up outcome of parkinsonian symptoms in depressed older adults treated with antipsychotics: a case series
    Anastasios Politis, Nikolaos Kokras, Michael Souvatzoglou, Kostas Siarkos, Panagiotis Toulas, Constantin Potagas, Theodoros Hatzipanagiotou, Georgios Limouris, Panagiotis Alexopoulos
    BMC Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness and safety of moxibustion for Parkinson disease
    Yonghui Hou, Baile Ning, Yamin Liu, Ying Liu, Wenbin Fu, Zehuai Wen
    Medicine.2021; 100(23): e26256.     CrossRef
  • Glucocerebrosidase Mutations and Motor Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease
    Seok Jong Chung, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn, Yun Joong Kim
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2021; 11(4): 1715.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of pupillometer results according to disease stage in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Sooyeoun You, Jeong-Ho Hong, Joonsang Yoo
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Clinical Features Indicating Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Degeneration in Drug-Induced Parkinsonism
Seung Ha Lee, Han Kyeol Kim, Young Gun Lee, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Sung Jun Ahn, Myung Sik Lee
J Mov Disord. 2017;10(1):35-39.   Published online December 27, 2016
  • 9,608 View
  • 158 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Patients with drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) may have nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration. We studied the clinical features that may indicate nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration in patients with DIP.
Forty-one DIP patients were classified into normal and abnormal [18F] FP-CIT scan groups. Differences in 32 clinical features and drug withdrawal effects were studied.
Twenty-eight patients had normal (Group I) and 13 patients had abnormal (Group II) scans. Eight patients of Group I, but none of Group II, had taken calcium channel blockers (p = 0.040). Three patients of Group I and six of Group II had hyposmia (p = 0.018). After drug withdrawal, Group I showed greater improvement in Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale total motor scores and subscores for bradykinesia and tremors than Group II. Only hyposmia was an independent factor associated with abnormal scans, but it had suboptimal sensitivity.
None of the clinical features were practical indicators of nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration in patients with DIP.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparative Olfactory Profiles in Parkinson’s Disease and Drug-Induced Parkinsonism
    In Hee Kwak, Young Eun Kim, Suk Yun Kang, Joong Seob Lee, Jeongjae Lee, Min Seung Kim, Dong A Yea, Hyeo-il Ma
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2024; 17(1): 64.     CrossRef
  • Retinal Thickness and Its Interocular Asymmetry Between Parkinson’s Disease and Drug-Induced Parkinsonism
    Wool Suh, Sung Uk Baek, Jungsu S. Oh, Seung Yeon Seo, Jae Seung Kim, You Mie Han, Min Seung Kim, Suk Yun Kang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Gait abnormalities and non-motor symptoms predict abnormal dopaminergic imaging in presumed drug-induced Parkinsonism
    Whitley W. Aamodt, Jacob G. Dubroff, Gang Cheng, Betty Taylor, Stephanie Wood, John E. Duda, James F. Morley
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Acute dopamine receptor blockade in substantia nigra pars reticulata: a possible model for drug-induced Parkinsonism
    Verónica Alejandra Cáceres-Chávez, Ricardo Hernández-Martínez, Jesús Pérez-Ortega, Marco Arieli Herrera-Valdez, Jose J. Aceves, Elvira Galarraga, José Bargas
    Journal of Neurophysiology.2018; 120(6): 2922.     CrossRef
  • Neuroimaging in Parkinson's disease: focus on substantia nigra and nigro-striatal projection
    Daniela Frosini, Mirco Cosottini, Duccio Volterrani, Roberto Ceravolo
    Current Opinion in Neurology.2017; 30(4): 416.     CrossRef

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