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Original Article
LRRK2 G2019S impact on Parkinson disease; clinical phenotype and treatment in Tunisian patients
Guedi ALI BARREH, Ikram SGHAIER, Youssef ABIDA, Alya GHARBI, Amina NASRI, Saloua MRABET, Amira SOUISSI, Mouna BEN DJEBARA, Sameh TRABELSI, Imen KACEM, Amina GARGOURI-BERRACHI, Riadh GOUIDER
Received December 30, 2023  Accepted April 19, 2024  Published online April 23, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23276    [Accepted]
  • 498 View
  • 29 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
LRRK2-G2019S is the most frequent mutation in North African Parkinson's disease (PD) patients.Data on its impact on disease progression and treatment response remains elusive.Therefore, we aimed to explore the clinical features,treatments,and complications through the disease course of PD Tunisian patients according to their LRRK2-G2019S profile.
Methods
Longitudinal retrospective study conducted in the department of Neurology,Razi University Hospital.We included clinically diagnosed PD patients according to the MDS criteria and reviewed their medical records for clinical,treatment, and neuropsychological assessments.LRRK2-G2019S mutation was screened among all cases using Sanger sequencing.The correlation of LRRK2-G2019S and the clinical PD features was then evaluated.
Results
We included 393 PD patients with 41.5% of cases were mutated for LRRK2-G2019S. Those with mutation exhibited an earlier age of onset(p=0.017),and female-PD cases had a higher mutation frequency (p=0.008).Mutation carriers displayed distinct clinical features,with a higher frequency of postural instability gait difficulty (PIGD)forms(adjusted-p<0.001).Throughout the disease progression,carriers showed a faster annual progression in UPDRS-III scores (adjusted-p=0.009) and a significantly higher Levodopa Equivalent Dosevalues in later stages(1060.81 vs. 877.83 for 6-8 years).Motor complications such as dyskinesia (adjusted-p<0.001) and motor fluctuations(31.9% vs. 25.7%,adjusted-p<0.001) were more prevalent in carriers,particularly in later stages.LRRK2-G2019S carriers also exhibited a lower prevalence of non-motor symptoms including cognitive disordersfor episodic memory(adjusted-p<0.001),attention(adjusted-p<0.001),and dysexecutive disorders (adjusted-p=0.039),as well asneuropsychiatric symptoms and dysautonomic signs.
Conclusion
This study demonstrated the variability of clinical profile among Tunisian PD cases explained by the incomplete penetrance of LRRK2-G2019S that increases with age.Further studies with biomarker and disease progression data are necessary to improve PD management.
Letter to the editor
Deep Brain Stimulation in Advanced Parkinson’s Disease: An Uncommon Case of Allergic Encephalitis
Jyun-Yi Chen, Yen-Chung Chen, Shey-Lin Wu
Received November 16, 2023  Accepted April 12, 2024  Published online April 15, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23237    [Accepted]
  • 620 View
  • 14 Download
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Review Article
Fighting Against the Clock: Circadian Disruption and Parkinson’s Disease
Yen-Chung Chen, Wei-Sheng Wang, Simon J G Lewis, Shey-Lin Wu
J Mov Disord. 2024;17(1):1-14.   Published online November 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23216
  • 2,093 View
  • 171 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Circadian disruption is being increasingly recognized as a critical factor in the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). This review aims to provide an in-depth overview of the relationship between circadian disruption and PD by exploring the molecular, cellular, and behavioral aspects of this interaction. This review will include a comprehensive understanding of how the clock gene system and transcription–translation feedback loops function and how they are diminished in PD. The article also discusses the role of clock genes in the regulation of circadian rhythms, as well as the impact of clock gene dysregulation on mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation, including the microbiota-gut-brain axis, which have all been proposed as being crucial mechanisms in the pathophysiology of PD. Finally, this review highlights potential therapeutic strategies targeting the clock gene system and circadian rhythm for the treatment of PD.
Case Report
Rapid-Onset Dystonia and Parkinsonism in a Patient With Gaucher Disease
Ellen Hertz, Grisel Lopez, Jens Lichtenberg, Dietrich Haubenberger, Nahid Tayebi, Mark Hallett, Ellen Sidransky
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(3):321-324.   Published online June 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23074
  • 1,856 View
  • 99 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Biallelic mutations in GBA1 cause the lysosomal storage disorder Gaucher disease, and carriers of GBA1 variants have an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is still unknown whether GBA1 variants are also associated with other movement disorders. We present the case of a woman with type 1 Gaucher disease who developed acute dystonia and parkinsonism at 35 years of age during a recombinant enzyme infusion treatment. She developed severe dystonia in all extremities and a bilateral pill-rolling tremor that did not respond to levodopa treatment. Despite the abrupt onset of symptoms, neither Sanger nor whole genome sequencing revealed pathogenic variants in ATP1A3 associated with rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP). Further examination showed hyposmia and presynaptic dopaminergic deficits in [18F]-DOPA PET, which are commonly seen in PD but not in RDP. This case extends the spectrum of movement disorders reported in patients with GBA1 mutations, suggesting an intertwined phenotype.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Phenotypic consequences of GBA1 pathological variant R463C (p.R502C)
    Emory Ryan, Samantha Nishimura, Grisel Lopez, Nahid Tayebi, Ellen Sidransky
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Development of Clinical Milestones in Parkinson’s Disease After Bilateral Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation
Jed Noel A. Ong, Jung Hwan Shin, Seungho Jeon, Chan Young Lee, Han-Joon Kim, Sun Ha Paek, Beomseok Jeon
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(2):124-131.   Published online May 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.21106
  • 2,553 View
  • 139 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients does not halt disease progression, as these patients will progress and develop disabling non-levodopa responsive symptoms. These features may act as milestones that represent the overall functionality of patients after DBS. The objective of this study was to investigate the development of clinical milestones in advanced PD patients who underwent bilateral STN-DBS.
Methods
The study evaluated PD patients who underwent STN-DBS at baseline up to their last follow-up using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and Hoehn and Yahr scale. The symptoms of hallucinations, dysarthria, dysphagia, frequent falls, difficulty walking, cognitive impairment and the loss of autonomy were chosen as the clinical milestones.
Results
A total of 106 patients with a mean age of 47.21 ± 10.52 years at disease onset, a mean age of 58.72 ± 8.74 years at surgery and a mean disease duration of 11.51 ± 4.4 years before surgery were included. Initial improvement of motor symptoms was seen after the surgery with the appearance of clinical milestones over time. Using the moderately disabling criteria, 81 patients (76.41%) developed at least one clinical milestone, while 48 patients (45.28%) developed a milestone when using the severely disabling criteria.
Conclusion
STN-DBS has a limited effect on axial and nonmotor symptoms of the PD patients, in contrast to the effect on motor symptoms. These symptoms may serve as clinical milestones that can convey the status of PD patients and its impact on the patients and their caregivers. Therefore, advanced PD patients, even those treated with bilateral STN-DBS, will still require assistance and cannot live independently in the long run.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Unveiling the Impact of Outpatient Physiotherapy on Specific Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study
    Yuta Terasawa, Koki Ikuno, Shintaro Fujii, Yuki Nishi, Emi Tanizawa, Sachio Nabeshima, Yohei Okada
    Brain & Neurorehabilitation.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Brief communication
Deep Brain Stimulation Battery Exhaustion during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Crisis within a Crisis
Vikram Venkappayya Holla, Koti Neeraja, Bharath Kumar Surisetti, Shweta Prasad, Nitish Kamble, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(3):218-222.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20073
  • 8,147 View
  • 117 Download
  • 16 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and public health measures to control it have resulted in unique challenges in the management of patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS). We report our experience with the management of acute worsening of symptoms due to battery exhaustion in 3 patients with DBS.
Methods
Patients with DBS for movement disorders who visited the emergency room due to battery exhaustion during the nationwide lockdown from April to May 2020 were included.
Results
Two patients with subthalamic nucleus-DBS for Parkinson’s disease (PD) and one with globus pallidus interna-DBS for generalized dystonia presented with acute worsening of symptoms due to battery exhaustion. Urgent battery replacement was performed in both patients with PD. The patient with generalized dystonia was managed with medication adjustment as he chose to defer battery replacement.
Conclusion
DBS battery replacement can be an emergency. Decisions regarding DBS battery replacement should be individualized during this COVID-19 pandemic.

Citations

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  • Effects of COVID-19 on Synaptic and Neuronal Degeneration
    Mohammed S. Alqahtani, Mohamed Abbas, Mohammad Y. Alshahrani, Khulud Alabdullh, Amjad Alqarni, Fawaz F. Alqahtani, Layal K. Jambi, Adnan Alkhayat
    Brain Sciences.2023; 13(1): 131.     CrossRef
  • Needs and Perceptions of Patients With Dystonia During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Framework Analysis of Survey Responses From Italy
    Vittorio Rispoli, Matías Eduardo Díaz Crescitelli, Francesco Cavallieri, Francesca Antonelli, Stefano Meletti, Luca Ghirotto, Franco Valzania
    Frontiers in Neurology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Parkinsonism hyperpyraexia syndrome in Parkinson's disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation: An indirect consequence of COVID-19 lockdowns
    Onanong Phokaewvarangkul, Sasivimol Virameteekul, Roongroj Bhidayasiri
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2021; 87: 39.     CrossRef
  • An Investigation Into Miniaturised Closed-Loop DBS Devices
    Dean M. Corva, Scott D. Adams, Kevin E. Bennet, Parastoo Hashemi, Michael Berk, Abbas Z. Kouzani
    IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics.2021; 3(3): 671.     CrossRef
  • Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Movement Disorders Patients With Deep Brain Stimulation: A Multicenter Survey
    Carla Piano, Francesco Bove, Tommaso Tufo, Isabella Imbimbo, Danilo Genovese, Alessandro Stefani, Massimo Marano, Antonella Peppe, Livia Brusa, Rocco Cerroni, Francesco Motolese, Enrico Di Stasio, Marianna Mazza, Antonio Daniele, Alessandro Olivi, Paolo C
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Review Articles
Update on Current Technologies for Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease
Michelle Paff, Aaron Loh, Can Sarica, Andres M. Lozano, Alfonso Fasano
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(3):185-198.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20052
  • 18,873 View
  • 748 Download
  • 53 Web of Science
  • 53 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is becoming increasingly central in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders. Recent developments in DBS lead and implantable pulse generator design provide increased flexibility for programming, potentially improving the therapeutic benefit of stimulation. Directional DBS leads may increase the therapeutic window of stimulation by providing a means of avoiding current spread to structures that might give rise to stimulation-related side effects. Similarly, control of current to individual contacts on a DBS lead allows for shaping of the electric field produced between multiple active contacts. The following review aims to describe the recent developments in DBS system technology and the features of each commercially available DBS system. The advantages of each system are reviewed, and general considerations for choosing the most appropriate system are discussed.

Citations

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    Yıldız Değirmenci
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    Clinical Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2024; 10: 100234.     CrossRef
  • Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson disease 2013–2023: where are we a further 10 years on?
    Andrew Brian O’Keeffe, Anca Merla, Keyoumars Ashkan
    British Journal of Neurosurgery.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Preventing Sudden Cessation of Implantable Pulse Generators in Deep Brain Stimulation: A Systematic Review and Protocol Proposal
    Spencer J. Oslin, Helen H. Shi, Andrew K. Conner
    Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery.2024; 102(2): 127.     CrossRef
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    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2023; 444: 120484.     CrossRef
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    Gülşah Öztürk, Kemal Paksoy
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  • Neurodegenerative disorders management: state-of-art and prospects of nano-biotechnology
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    Cristian Sevcencu
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    Jana Peeters, Alexandra Boogers, Tine Van Bogaert, Robin Gransier, Jan Wouters, Bart Nuttin, Myles Mc Laughlin
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    Stella B. Legarda, P. Andreas Michas-Martin, Dana McDermott
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    Akash Mishra, Ritesh A Ramdhani
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    Marwan Hariz, Gun‐Marie Hariz, Patric Blomstedt
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    Emily Kolaya, Bonnie L. Firestein
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    Vibhash D. Sharma, Delaram Safarpour, Shyamal H. Mehta, Nora Vanegas-Arroyave, Daniel Weiss, Jeffrey W. Cooney, Zoltan Mari, Alfonso Fasano
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  • Implantable Pulse Generators for Deep Brain Stimulation: Challenges, Complications, and Strategies for Practicality and Longevity
    Can Sarica, Christian Iorio-Morin, David H. Aguirre-Padilla, Ahmed Najjar, Michelle Paff, Anton Fomenko, Kazuaki Yamamoto, Ajmal Zemmar, Nir Lipsman, George M. Ibrahim, Clement Hamani, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M. Lozano, Renato P. Munhoz, Alfonso Fasano, Sun
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Microstimulation Is a Promising Approach in Achieving Better Lead Placement in Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery
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    Frontiers in Neurology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Revisiting brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease
    Carola A. Haas
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  • A New Implantable Closed-Loop Clinical Neural Interface: First Application in Parkinson’s Disease
    Mattia Arlotti, Matteo Colombo, Andrea Bonfanti, Tomasz Mandat, Michele Maria Lanotte, Elena Pirola, Linda Borellini, Paolo Rampini, Roberto Eleopra, Sara Rinaldo, Luigi Romito, Marcus L. F. Janssen, Alberto Priori, Sara Marceglia
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Update on Parkinson's Disease Therapy
    Rebecca M Gilbert
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  • Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease: Currents Status and Emerging Concepts
    PareshK Doshi, Deepak Das
    Neurology India.2020; 68(8): 179.     CrossRef
Nutrition and Lifestyle Interventions for Managing Parkinson’s Disease: A Narrative Review
Tracy Lister
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(2):97-104.   Published online May 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20006
  • 13,951 View
  • 593 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The etiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is not fully understood, but environmental toxin overexposure, increased intestinal permeability, and dysbiosis related to nutrition and lifestyle habits are thought to be contributors. Considering these nutrition and lifestyle implications, there is a lack of practice-based programs utilizing interventions for managing symptoms or slowing the progression of the disease. The purpose of this narrative review was to identify relevant research related to nutrition and lifestyle interventions for PD, evaluate the research utilizing the evidence analysis process of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to assess the quality of each research article, and group the research into categories. A grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) of either good, fair, limited, or not assignable was allocated to each category of research, including diet patterns, vitamin D, B-complex, omega-3 fatty acids, coenzyme Q10, probiotics, physical activity, stress, and sleep. An intervention based on the research presented in the review may be utilized for coaching people with PD on symptom management.

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Original Articles
Long-term Effects of Bilateral Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on Postural Instability and Gait Difficulty in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Hae-Won Shin, Mi Sun Kim, Sung Reul Kim, Sang Ryong Jeon, Sun Ju Chung
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(2):127-132.   Published online May 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.19081
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
The long-term effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the longterm effects of STN-DBS surgery on PIGD symptoms in patients with advanced-stage PD. Methods This study included 49 consecutively included patients with PD who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores and subscores for PIGD were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, and 5 years postoperatively. The PIGD subscore was divided into PIGD-motor and PIGD-activities of daily living (ADL) scores according to parts III and II of the UPDRS, respectively. Results The PIGD-motor and PIGD-ADL scores at the “medication-off” state improved at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Overall, the UPDRS III and II scores at “medication-off” improved at 5 years. The UPDRS IV score also significantly improved and the levodopa equivalent daily dosage decreased at all follow-ups. Finally, the PIGD-motor score at baseline was able to predict long-term improvement in the PIGD-motor score at the 5-year follow-up. Conclusion The STN-DBS has both short- and long-term effects on PIGD, as well as overall motor function, in patients with advanced PD. The degree of PIGD at the preoperative evaluation can be used to predict long-term outcomes after STN-DBS surgery.

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  • Effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation using different frequency programming paradigms on axial symptoms in advanced Parkinson’s disease
    Yifeng Cheng, Guangrui Zhao, Lei Chen, Deqiu Cui, Chunjuan Wang, Keke Feng, Shaoya Yin
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    Rajiv Dharnipragada, Lalitha S. Denduluri, Anant Naik, Mario Bertogliat, Matthew Awad, Salman Ikramuddin, Michael C. Park
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Association between Olfactory Deficit and Motor and Cognitive Function in Parkinson’s Disease
Han Soo Yoo, Seok Jong Chung, Yang Hyun Lee, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H. Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(2):133-141.   Published online April 6, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.19082
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
To investigate whether baseline olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients is associated with baseline and longitudinal motor and cognitive function.
Methods
We recruited 228 drug-naïve PD patients who were followed for a mean of 6 years. Patients underwent the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CCSIT), a neuropsychological test, and N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane positron emission tomography within 6 months of the baseline evaluation. Olfactory dysfunction was categorized as normosmia (CCSIT score ≥ 9), hyposmia (CCSIT score 5–8), and anosmia (CCSIT score ≤ 4). During the follow-up period, we investigated changes in the levodopa-equivalent dose (LED) and the occurrence of wearing-off, levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and dementia.
Results
Among the PD patients, 80.7% were hyposmic at the time of diagnosis, and 26.1% were anosmic. Baseline olfactory dysfunction was not associated with either initial parkinsonian motor symptoms or with the longitudinal LED increment and motor complications. Meanwhile, the anosmic group had lower baseline scores on the Korea version of the Boston Naming Test and Stroop color reading test than the normosmic and hyposmic groups. The anosmic group exhibited a higher rate of conversion to dementia than the normosmic [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 3.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–14.72] and hyposmic (adjusted HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.15–5.32) PD groups, regardless of baseline motor deficits and cognitive status.
Conclusion
Baseline olfactory dysfunction was not associated with motor deficits and complications, but it was associated with cognitive dysfunction and prognosis, suggesting that severe olfactory impairment may reflect early cortical involvement, probably in the frontotemporal region, and rapid spreading of Lewy body pathology.

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Less Pulsatile Levodopa Therapy (6 Doses Daily) Is Associated with a Reduced Incidence of Dyskinesia
Mark M. Lin, Robert Laureno
J Mov Disord. 2019;12(1):37-42.   Published online January 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.18046
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
To evaluate whether less pulsatile levodopa therapy (LPT) can reduce the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID).
Methods
This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with Parkinson’s disease at the movement disorders clinic of Medstar Washington Hospital Center. The study was not blinded or randomized. Patients were seen between August 2002 and August 2018. During these years, we treated patients with less pulsatile (6 doses daily) levodopa treatment to reduce LID. Occurrence of LID was recorded.
Results
Ninety-five patients with Parkinson’s disease taking levodopa were divided into two groups: 1) patients who were initially managed on LPT or who switched from traditional therapy (TT) (n = 61) (mean disease duration: 7.7 ± 4.8 years, mean levodopa duration: 5.6 ± 4.5 years and mean observation time: 4.3 ± 3.4 years), and 2) patients on TT throughout the observation period or until they developed dyskinesia (n = 34) (mean disease duration: 8.3 ± 3.8 years, mean levodopa duration: 6.2 ± 4.2 years and mean observation time: 4.1 ± 3.4 years). Three of the 61 LPT patients developed dyskinesia during the observation period. One of the patients developed dyskinesia after being switched to pulsatile doses by another doctor. In the other two, dyskinesia was minimal. In contrast to this 4.9% cumulative incidence, dyskinesia occurred in 50% (17/34) of TT patients, an incidence similar to that in published data (p < 0.001).
Conclusion
Less pulsatile levodopa with 6 daily doses was associated with a low incidence of LID. Further study of this method of treatment is warranted.

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  • Reduced Plasma Levodopa Fluctuations with More Frequent Administration of a Novel Carbidopa/Levodopa Functionally Scored Tablet
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Validation of the Conversion between the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive assessment in Korean Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Ryul Kim, Han-Joon Kim, Aryun Kim, Mi-Hee Jang, Hyun Jeong Kim, Beomseok Jeon
J Mov Disord. 2018;11(1):30-34.   Published online January 11, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.17038
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Two conversion tables between the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) have recently been established for Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study aimed to validate them in Korean patients with PD and to evaluate whether they could be influenced by educational level.
Methods
A total of 391 patients with PD who undertook both the Korean MMSE and the Korean MoCA during the same session were retrospectively assessed. The mean, median, and root mean squared error (RMSE) of the difference between the true and converted MMSE scores and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated according to educational level (6 or fewer years, 7–12 years, or 13 or more years).
Results
Both conversions had a median value of 0, with a small mean and RMSE of differences, and a high correlation between the true and converted MMSE scores. In the classification according to educational level, all groups had roughly similar values of the median, mean, RMSE, and ICC both within and between the conversions.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that both MMSE-MoCA conversion tables are useful instruments for transforming MoCA scores into converted MMSE scores in Korean patients with PD, regardless of educational level. These will greatly enhance the utility of the existing cognitive data from the Korean PD population in clinical and research settings.

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Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder in Parkinson’s Disease: A Preliminary Study
Chang Soo Kim, Young Hee Sung, Min Ju Kang, Kee Hyung Park
J Mov Disord. 2016;9(2):114-119.   Published online March 2, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.15039
  • 16,206 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). We aimed to assess the differences in the clinical characteristics of PD with and without RBD.
Methods
Forty-two patients previously diagnosed with PD were evaluated for clinical history, motor and cognitive functioning using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), autonomic symptoms, sleep characteristics using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the presence of RBD using the Korean version of the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ). The prevalence of RBD and the patients’ demographic features were evaluated. The patients were classified into two groups, PD with RBD and PD without RBD, based on the RBDSQ scores. The motor and cognitive functions, as well as other clinical features of the two groups were compared.
Results
A total of 42 PD patients were enrolled. Eighteen patients were classified as PD with RBD. Compared to PD without RBD, PD with RBD showed higher scores of rigidity in the UPDRS subscale. Regarding sleep problems, PD with RBD revealed higher sleep disturbance, lower sleep efficiency, and lower overall sleep quality in the PSQI. There was no difference in cognitive dysfunction between the two groups according to the Korean version of the MMSE.
Conclusions
PD with RBD was associated with poorer sleep and motor symptoms. Therefore, RBD symptoms in PD are possibly poor prognostic markers.

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Review Article
The Current Status of Deep Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Parkinson Disease in the Republic of Korea
Jung-Il Lee
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(3):115-121.   Published online September 10, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.15043
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease with an increasing prevalence in Korea. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a safe and effective surgical treatment option for this disease. The aim of this review was to provide an update regarding current DBS practices with respect to the treatment of PD in the Republic of Korea. The first DBS in Korea was performed in 2000; approximately 2,000 patients have undergone DBS for a variety of neurological disorders, the majority of whom were patients with PD. Approximately 150 new patients with PD receive DBS annually, and more than 20 centers perform DBS. However, DBS remains underutilized for many reasons, and the clinical case burden at many institutions is below the level presumed adequate for qualified practice. With a rapidly aging population and an evolving socioeconomic environment, the need for surgical intervention for PD is likely to increase significantly in the future. Many issues such as finances, education, and quality assurance must be resolved to cope with this need.

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Original Article
Effect of Rivastigmine on Behavioral and Psychiatric Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease Dementia
Yoon-Sang Oh, Joong-Seok Kim, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(2):98-102.   Published online May 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.15041
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective A recent study showed that rivastigmine and memantin improved behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Alzheimer’s dementia. Furthermore, according to recent guidelines presented by the Movement Disorder Society, rivastigmine is efficacious for the treatment of dementia in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We investigated the efficacy of rivastigmine for BPSD in patients with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD).
Methods Twenty-three patients in whom cognitive impairment occurred at least one year after a diagnosis of PD participated in this open-label trial. Cognitive, psychiatric, and motor symptoms were assessed before and after 24 weeks of treatment with rivastigmine using unstructured clinical assessments and rating scales including the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory.
Results Age (± standard deviation) was 74.7 ± 5.9 years, average duration of PD was 3.5 ± 3.7 years, Hoehn and Yahr scores were 2.2 ± 0.8, and baseline MMSE scores were 19.1 ± 4.2. Improvements in global mental symptoms and neuropsychiatric symptoms were significant; among them, hallucination, depression and appetite changes improved. Caregiver distress significantly decreased, including distress resulting from hallucinations, depression, apathy, and appetite changes.
Conclusions Although controlled trials are required, the findings suggest that rivastigmine is useful for control of several neuropsychiatric symptoms and beneficial for caregiver distress in patients with PDD.

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