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Original Article
Development of Clinical Milestones in Parkinson’s Disease After Bilateral Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation
Jed Noel A. Ong, Jung Hwan Shin, Seungho Jeon, Chan Young Lee, Han-Joon Kim, Sun Ha Paek, Beomseok Jeon
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(2):124-131.   Published online May 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.21106
  • 1,034 View
  • 90 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients does not halt disease progression, as these patients will progress and develop disabling non-levodopa responsive symptoms. These features may act as milestones that represent the overall functionality of patients after DBS. The objective of this study was to investigate the development of clinical milestones in advanced PD patients who underwent bilateral STN-DBS.
Methods
The study evaluated PD patients who underwent STN-DBS at baseline up to their last follow-up using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and Hoehn and Yahr scale. The symptoms of hallucinations, dysarthria, dysphagia, frequent falls, difficulty walking, cognitive impairment and the loss of autonomy were chosen as the clinical milestones.
Results
A total of 106 patients with a mean age of 47.21 ± 10.52 years at disease onset, a mean age of 58.72 ± 8.74 years at surgery and a mean disease duration of 11.51 ± 4.4 years before surgery were included. Initial improvement of motor symptoms was seen after the surgery with the appearance of clinical milestones over time. Using the moderately disabling criteria, 81 patients (76.41%) developed at least one clinical milestone, while 48 patients (45.28%) developed a milestone when using the severely disabling criteria.
Conclusion
STN-DBS has a limited effect on axial and nonmotor symptoms of the PD patients, in contrast to the effect on motor symptoms. These symptoms may serve as clinical milestones that can convey the status of PD patients and its impact on the patients and their caregivers. Therefore, advanced PD patients, even those treated with bilateral STN-DBS, will still require assistance and cannot live independently in the long run.
Brief communication
Deep Brain Stimulation Battery Exhaustion during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Crisis within a Crisis
Vikram Venkappayya Holla, Koti Neeraja, Bharath Kumar Surisetti, Shweta Prasad, Nitish Kamble, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(3):218-222.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20073
  • 6,533 View
  • 95 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and public health measures to control it have resulted in unique challenges in the management of patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS). We report our experience with the management of acute worsening of symptoms due to battery exhaustion in 3 patients with DBS.
Methods
Patients with DBS for movement disorders who visited the emergency room due to battery exhaustion during the nationwide lockdown from April to May 2020 were included.
Results
Two patients with subthalamic nucleus-DBS for Parkinson’s disease (PD) and one with globus pallidus interna-DBS for generalized dystonia presented with acute worsening of symptoms due to battery exhaustion. Urgent battery replacement was performed in both patients with PD. The patient with generalized dystonia was managed with medication adjustment as he chose to defer battery replacement.
Conclusion
DBS battery replacement can be an emergency. Decisions regarding DBS battery replacement should be individualized during this COVID-19 pandemic.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Needs and Perceptions of Patients With Dystonia During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Framework Analysis of Survey Responses From Italy
    Vittorio Rispoli, Matías Eduardo Díaz Crescitelli, Francesco Cavallieri, Francesca Antonelli, Stefano Meletti, Luca Ghirotto, Franco Valzania
    Frontiers in Neurology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Parkinsonism hyperpyraexia syndrome in Parkinson's disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation: An indirect consequence of COVID-19 lockdowns
    Onanong Phokaewvarangkul, Sasivimol Virameteekul, Roongroj Bhidayasiri
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2021; 87: 39.     CrossRef
  • An Investigation Into Miniaturised Closed-Loop DBS Devices
    Dean M. Corva, Scott D. Adams, Kevin E. Bennet, Parastoo Hashemi, Michael Berk, Abbas Z. Kouzani
    IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics.2021; 3(3): 671.     CrossRef
  • Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Movement Disorders Patients With Deep Brain Stimulation: A Multicenter Survey
    Carla Piano, Francesco Bove, Tommaso Tufo, Isabella Imbimbo, Danilo Genovese, Alessandro Stefani, Massimo Marano, Antonella Peppe, Livia Brusa, Rocco Cerroni, Francesco Motolese, Enrico Di Stasio, Marianna Mazza, Antonio Daniele, Alessandro Olivi, Paolo C
    Frontiers in Neurology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Review Articles
Update on Current Technologies for Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease
Michelle Paff, Aaron Loh, Can Sarica, Andres M. Lozano, Alfonso Fasano
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(3):185-198.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20052
  • 13,663 View
  • 591 Download
  • 34 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is becoming increasingly central in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders. Recent developments in DBS lead and implantable pulse generator design provide increased flexibility for programming, potentially improving the therapeutic benefit of stimulation. Directional DBS leads may increase the therapeutic window of stimulation by providing a means of avoiding current spread to structures that might give rise to stimulation-related side effects. Similarly, control of current to individual contacts on a DBS lead allows for shaping of the electric field produced between multiple active contacts. The following review aims to describe the recent developments in DBS system technology and the features of each commercially available DBS system. The advantages of each system are reviewed, and general considerations for choosing the most appropriate system are discussed.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Brain stimulation treatments in epilepsy: Basic mechanisms and clinical advances
    Thomas J. Foutz, Michael Wong
    Biomedical Journal.2022; 45(1): 27.     CrossRef
  • Neurodegenerative disorders management: state-of-art and prospects of nano-biotechnology
    Raj Kumar, Keshaw Ram Aadil, Kunal Mondal, Yogendra Kumar Mishra, David Oupicky, Seeram Ramakrishna, Ajeet Kaushik
    Critical Reviews in Biotechnology.2022; 42(8): 1180.     CrossRef
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    Jeremy Hunt, Elizabeth J. Coulson, Rajendram Rajnarayanan, Henrik Oster, Aleksandar Videnovic, Oliver Rawashdeh
    Molecular Neurodegeneration.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Nicholas D. Lorusso, Uma R. Mohan, Joshua Jacobs
    Artificial Organs.2022; 46(4): 531.     CrossRef
  • Local and distant cortical responses to single pulse intracranial stimulation in the human brain are differentially modulated by specific stimulation parameters
    Angelique C. Paulk, Rina Zelmann, Britni Crocker, Alik S. Widge, Darin D. Dougherty, Emad N. Eskandar, Daniel S. Weisholtz, R. Mark Richardson, G. Rees Cosgrove, Ziv M. Williams, Sydney S. Cash
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  • Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: Advances in Cutting Edge Technologies, Artificial Intelligence, Neuromodulation, Neuroethics, Pain, Interventional Psychiatry, Epilepsy, and Traumatic Brain Injury
    Joshua K. Wong, Günther Deuschl, Robin Wolke, Hagai Bergman, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa, Sameer A. Sheth, Helen M. Bronte-Stewart, Kevin B. Wilkins, Matthew N. Petrucci, Emilia Lambert, Yasmine Kehnemouyi, Philip A. Starr, Simon Little, Juan Ans
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  • Past, Present, and Future of Deep Brain Stimulation: Hardware, Software, Imaging, Physiology and Novel Approaches
    Jessica Frey, Jackson Cagle, Kara A. Johnson, Joshua K. Wong, Justin D. Hilliard, Christopher R. Butson, Michael S. Okun, Coralie de Hemptinne
    Frontiers in Neurology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Parkinson’s Disease Management via Wearable Sensors: A Systematic Review
    Huma Mughal, Abdul Rehman Javed, Muhammad Rizwan, Ahmad S. Almadhor, Natalia Kryvinska
    IEEE Access.2022; 10: 35219.     CrossRef
  • Conversion to Hybrid Deep Brain Stimulation System to Enable Multi‐Contact Fractionation Can be Therapeutic
    Disep I. Ojukwu, Allan R. Wang, Traci S. Hornbeck, Erika A. Lim, Jennifer Sharrard, Rohit Dhall, Vivek P. Buch, Casey H. Halpern
    Movement Disorders.2022; 37(6): 1321.     CrossRef
  • Developments in Deep Brain Stimulators for Successful Aging Towards Smart Devices—An Overview
    Angelito A. Silverio, Lean Angelo A. Silverio
    Frontiers in Aging.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Single-interface bioelectronic medicines—concept, clinical applications and preclinical data
    Cristian Sevcencu
    Journal of Neural Engineering.2022; 19(3): 031001.     CrossRef
  • Current Steering Using Multiple Independent Current Control Deep Brain Stimulation Technology Results in Distinct Neurophysiological Responses in Parkinson’s Disease Patients
    Jana Peeters, Alexandra Boogers, Tine Van Bogaert, Robin Gransier, Jan Wouters, Bart Nuttin, Myles Mc Laughlin
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Managing Intractable Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease: A Nonsurgical Approach Employing Infralow Frequency Neuromodulation
    Stella B. Legarda, P. Andreas Michas-Martin, Dana McDermott
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Akash Mishra, Ritesh A Ramdhani
    Neurology.2022; 18(1): 64.     CrossRef
  • Approach to the Treatment of Pediatric Dystonia
    Carolina Gorodetsky, Alfonso Fasano
    Dystonia.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Neurotoxicity Research.2022; 40(5): 1597.     CrossRef
  • Long-term motor outcomes of deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus interna in Parkinson's disease patients: Five-year follow-up
    Yun Su Hwang, Sungyang Jo, Seung Hyun Lee, Nayoung Kim, Mi-Sun Kim, Sang Ryong Jeon, Sun Ju Chung
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2022; : 120484.     CrossRef
  • Encoding type, medication, and deep brain stimulation differentially affect memory-guided sequential reaching movements in Parkinson's disease
    Fabian J. David, Yessenia M. Rivera, Tara K. Entezar, Rishabh Arora, Quentin H. Drane, Miranda J. Munoz, Joshua M. Rosenow, Sepehr B. Sani, Gian D. Pal, Leonard Verhagen-Metman, Daniel M. Corcos
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    Si Chen, Shu-jun Xu, Wei-guo Li, Teng Chen, Chao Li, Shuo Xu, Ning Yang, Yi-ming Liu
    Frontiers in Neurology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Longevity of Deep Brain Stimulation Batteries; a Global Survey of Neurosurgeons and Neurologists
    Marwan Hariz, Gun‐Marie Hariz, Patric Blomstedt
    Movement Disorders.2021; 36(5): 1273.     CrossRef
  • Basic Tips: How Do I Start Programming Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson Disease Patients?
    Carolina Gorodetsky, Alfonso Fasano
    Movement Disorders Clinical Practice.2021; 8(4): 639.     CrossRef
  • Deep brain stimulation: Challenges at the tissue‐electrode interface and current solutions
    Emily Kolaya, Bonnie L. Firestein
    Biotechnology Progress.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Dipali Nemade, Thyagarajan Subramanian, Vikram Shivkumar
    Aging and disease.2021; 12(4): 1021.     CrossRef
  • Experimental Characterization of Ferroelectric Capacitor Circuits for the Realization of Simply Designed Electroceuticals
    Yves Olsommer, Frank R. Ihmig
    Electronic Materials.2021; 2(3): 299.     CrossRef
  • Flexible vs. standard subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson disease: A double-blind proof-of-concept cross-over trial
    Derrick Soh, Ricardo Maciel, Musleh Algarni, Karlo Lizarraga, Aaron Loh, Jürgen Germann, Gavin Elias, Alexandre Boutet, Renato P. Munhoz, Suneil K. Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M. Lozano, Alfonso Fasano
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  • Telemedicine and Deep brain stimulation - Current practices and recommendations
    Vibhash D. Sharma, Delaram Safarpour, Shyamal H. Mehta, Nora Vanegas-Arroyave, Daniel Weiss, Jeffrey W. Cooney, Zoltan Mari, Alfonso Fasano
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2021; 89: 199.     CrossRef
  • Subspace-based predictive control of Parkinson’s disease: A model-based study
    Mahboubeh Ahmadipour, Mojtaba Barkhordari-Yazdi, Saeid R. Seydnejad
    Neural Networks.2021; 142: 680.     CrossRef
  • Advances in Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Self‐Powered Regenerative Medicine
    Samira Parandeh, Niloofar Etemadi, Mahshid Kharaziha, Guorui Chen, Ardo Nashalian, Xiao Xiao, Jun Chen
    Advanced Functional Materials.2021; 31(47): 2105169.     CrossRef
  • Implantable Pulse Generators for Deep Brain Stimulation: Challenges, Complications, and Strategies for Practicality and Longevity
    Can Sarica, Christian Iorio-Morin, David H. Aguirre-Padilla, Ahmed Najjar, Michelle Paff, Anton Fomenko, Kazuaki Yamamoto, Ajmal Zemmar, Nir Lipsman, George M. Ibrahim, Clement Hamani, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M. Lozano, Renato P. Munhoz, Alfonso Fasano, Sun
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  • Microstimulation Is a Promising Approach in Achieving Better Lead Placement in Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery
    Lin Shi, Shiying Fan, Tianshuo Yuan, Huaying Fang, Jie Zheng, Zunyu Xiao, Yu Diao, Guanyu Zhu, Quan Zhang, Huanguang Liu, Hua Zhang, Fangang Meng, Jianguo Zhang, Anchao Yang
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  • Revisiting brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease
    Carola A. Haas
    Science.2021; 374(6564): 153.     CrossRef
  • A New Implantable Closed-Loop Clinical Neural Interface: First Application in Parkinson’s Disease
    Mattia Arlotti, Matteo Colombo, Andrea Bonfanti, Tomasz Mandat, Michele Maria Lanotte, Elena Pirola, Linda Borellini, Paolo Rampini, Roberto Eleopra, Sara Rinaldo, Luigi Romito, Marcus L. F. Janssen, Alberto Priori, Sara Marceglia
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Update on Parkinson's Disease Therapy
    Rebecca M Gilbert
    Neurology.2021; 17(2): 92.     CrossRef
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    Neurology India.2020; 68(8): 179.     CrossRef
Nutrition and Lifestyle Interventions for Managing Parkinson’s Disease: A Narrative Review
Tracy Lister
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(2):97-104.   Published online May 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20006
  • 9,632 View
  • 495 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The etiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is not fully understood, but environmental toxin overexposure, increased intestinal permeability, and dysbiosis related to nutrition and lifestyle habits are thought to be contributors. Considering these nutrition and lifestyle implications, there is a lack of practice-based programs utilizing interventions for managing symptoms or slowing the progression of the disease. The purpose of this narrative review was to identify relevant research related to nutrition and lifestyle interventions for PD, evaluate the research utilizing the evidence analysis process of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to assess the quality of each research article, and group the research into categories. A grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) of either good, fair, limited, or not assignable was allocated to each category of research, including diet patterns, vitamin D, B-complex, omega-3 fatty acids, coenzyme Q10, probiotics, physical activity, stress, and sleep. An intervention based on the research presented in the review may be utilized for coaching people with PD on symptom management.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effect of vitamin D and other indicators of phosphorus-calcium metabolism on cognitive functions and quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease
    D. A. Novotnyy, N. G. Zhukova, L. P. Shperling, V. A. Stolyarova, I. A. Zhukova, A. E. Agasheva, S. V. Shtaimets, O. A. Druzhinina, I. V. Shirokikh
    Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Psychosomatics.2022; 14(1): 38.     CrossRef
  • Do Naturally Occurring Antioxidants Protect Against Neurodegeneration of the Dopaminergic System? A Systematic Revision in Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease
    Carmen Costas, Lilian R.F. Faro
    Current Neuropharmacology.2022; 20(2): 432.     CrossRef
  • Laboratory prognostic factors for the long-term survival of multiple system atrophy
    Jung Hwan Shin, Han-Joon Kim, Chan Young Lee, Hee Jin Chang, Kyung Ah Woo, Beomseok Jeon
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Qualitative Analysis of Experiences With Food-Related Activities Among People Living With Parkinson Disease and Their Care-Partners
    Christine C. Ferguson, Seung Eun Jung, Jeannine C. Lawrence, Joy W. Douglas, Anne Halli-Tierney, Chuong Bui, Amy C. Ellis
    Journal of Applied Gerontology.2022; : 073346482211183.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Long-term Effects of Bilateral Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on Postural Instability and Gait Difficulty in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Hae-Won Shin, Mi Sun Kim, Sung Reul Kim, Sang Ryong Jeon, Sun Ju Chung
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(2):127-132.   Published online May 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.19081
  • 4,501 View
  • 192 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
The long-term effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the longterm effects of STN-DBS surgery on PIGD symptoms in patients with advanced-stage PD. Methods This study included 49 consecutively included patients with PD who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores and subscores for PIGD were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, and 5 years postoperatively. The PIGD subscore was divided into PIGD-motor and PIGD-activities of daily living (ADL) scores according to parts III and II of the UPDRS, respectively. Results The PIGD-motor and PIGD-ADL scores at the “medication-off” state improved at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Overall, the UPDRS III and II scores at “medication-off” improved at 5 years. The UPDRS IV score also significantly improved and the levodopa equivalent daily dosage decreased at all follow-ups. Finally, the PIGD-motor score at baseline was able to predict long-term improvement in the PIGD-motor score at the 5-year follow-up. Conclusion The STN-DBS has both short- and long-term effects on PIGD, as well as overall motor function, in patients with advanced PD. The degree of PIGD at the preoperative evaluation can be used to predict long-term outcomes after STN-DBS surgery.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Role of Microelectrode Recording in Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery for Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    R. Saman Vinke, Martin Geerlings, Ashok K. Selvaraj, Dejan Georgiev, Bastiaan R. Bloem, Rianne A.J. Esselink, Ronald H.M.A. Bartels
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2022; 12(7): 2059.     CrossRef
  • Axial impairment and falls in Parkinson’s disease: 15 years of subthalamic deep brain stimulation
    Alessandro Zampogna, Francesco Cavallieri, Francesco Bove, Antonio Suppa, Anna Castrioto, Sara Meoni, Pierre Pélissier, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Amélie Bichon, Eugénie Lhommée, Andrea Kistner, Stephan Chabardès, Eric Seigneuret, Valerie Fraix, Elena Moro
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Long-term motor outcomes of deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus interna in Parkinson's disease patients: Five-year follow-up
    Yun Su Hwang, Sungyang Jo, Seung Hyun Lee, Nayoung Kim, Mi-Sun Kim, Sang Ryong Jeon, Sun Ju Chung
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2022; : 120484.     CrossRef
Association between Olfactory Deficit and Motor and Cognitive Function in Parkinson’s Disease
Han Soo Yoo, Seok Jong Chung, Yang Hyun Lee, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H. Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(2):133-141.   Published online April 6, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.19082
  • 6,593 View
  • 244 Download
  • 13 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
To investigate whether baseline olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients is associated with baseline and longitudinal motor and cognitive function.
Methods
We recruited 228 drug-naïve PD patients who were followed for a mean of 6 years. Patients underwent the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CCSIT), a neuropsychological test, and N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane positron emission tomography within 6 months of the baseline evaluation. Olfactory dysfunction was categorized as normosmia (CCSIT score ≥ 9), hyposmia (CCSIT score 5–8), and anosmia (CCSIT score ≤ 4). During the follow-up period, we investigated changes in the levodopa-equivalent dose (LED) and the occurrence of wearing-off, levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and dementia.
Results
Among the PD patients, 80.7% were hyposmic at the time of diagnosis, and 26.1% were anosmic. Baseline olfactory dysfunction was not associated with either initial parkinsonian motor symptoms or with the longitudinal LED increment and motor complications. Meanwhile, the anosmic group had lower baseline scores on the Korea version of the Boston Naming Test and Stroop color reading test than the normosmic and hyposmic groups. The anosmic group exhibited a higher rate of conversion to dementia than the normosmic [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 3.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–14.72] and hyposmic (adjusted HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.15–5.32) PD groups, regardless of baseline motor deficits and cognitive status.
Conclusion
Baseline olfactory dysfunction was not associated with motor deficits and complications, but it was associated with cognitive dysfunction and prognosis, suggesting that severe olfactory impairment may reflect early cortical involvement, probably in the frontotemporal region, and rapid spreading of Lewy body pathology.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Olfactory dysfunction is associated with motor function only in tremor-dominant Parkinson’s disease
    Fardin Nabizadeh, Kasra Pirahesh, Elham Khalili
    Neurological Sciences.2022; 43(7): 4193.     CrossRef
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    Jaewon Kim, Dong Keon Yon, Kyu Yeong Choi, Jang Jae Lee, Namwoo Kim, Kun Ho Lee, Jae Gwan Kim
    Alzheimer's Research & Therapy.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Role of Olfactory System in the Etiogenesis of Parkinson’s Diseases: An Overview
    Jiju Narayanan Avanipully, Dithu Thekkekkara, Sahyadri M, Vipan K. Parihar, Santhepete Nanjundaiah Manjula
    Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics.2022; 13(1): 31.     CrossRef
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    Zara M. Patel, Eric H. Holbrook, Justin H. Turner, Nithin D. Adappa, Mark W. Albers, Aytug Altundag, Simone Appenzeller, Richard M. Costanzo, Ilona Croy, Greg E. Davis, Puya Dehgani‐Mobaraki, Richard L. Doty, Valerie B. Duffy, Bradley J. Goldstein, David
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  • Does Olfactory Dysfunction Correlate with Disease Progression in Parkinson’s Disease? A Systematic Review of the Current Literature
    Tommaso Ercoli, Carla Masala, Gianluca Cadeddu, Marcello Mario Mascia, Gianni Orofino, Angelo Fabio Gigante, Paolo Solla, Giovanni Defazio, Lorenzo Rocchi
    Brain Sciences.2022; 12(5): 513.     CrossRef
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    Fardin Nabizadeh, Fatemeh Sodeifian, Kasra Pirahesh
    Neurological Sciences.2022; 43(8): 4745.     CrossRef
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    Vasudeva Murthy Challakere Ramaswamy, Peter William Schofield
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    William T. Phillips, Nasser J. Issa, Shereef B. Elhalwagi, Hilda T. Draeger, Joyce G. Schwartz, Jonathan A. Gelfond
    Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.2022; 20(7): 395.     CrossRef
  • Chronic neuropsychiatric sequelae of SARS‐CoV‐2: Protocol and methods from the Alzheimer's Association Global Consortium
    Gabriel A. de Erausquin, Heather Snyder, Traolach S. Brugha, Sudha Seshadri, Maria Carrillo, Rajesh Sagar, Yueqin Huang, Charles Newton, Carmela Tartaglia, Charlotte Teunissen, Krister Håkanson, Rufus Akinyemi, Kameshwar Prasad, Giovanni D'Avossa, Gabriel
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    Joshua Harvey, Rick A. Reijnders, Rachel Cavill, Annelien Duits, Sebastian Köhler, Lars Eijssen, Bart P. F. Rutten, Gemma Shireby, Ali Torkamani, Byron Creese, Albert F. G. Leentjens, Katie Lunnon, Ehsan Pishva
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  • Impact of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on Hyposmia in Patients With Parkinson's Disease Is Influenced by Constipation and Dysbiosis of Microbiota
    Chao Li, Ying Hou, Xu Wang, Yue-xuan Li, Feng Li, Chao Zhang, Wei-guo Li
    Frontiers in Neurology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jae Jung Lee, Jin Yong Hong, Jong Sam Baik
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    Han Soo Yoo, Sangwon Lee, Seong Ho Jeong, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H. Sohn, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2021; 11(4): 1703.     CrossRef
Less Pulsatile Levodopa Therapy (6 Doses Daily) Is Associated with a Reduced Incidence of Dyskinesia
Mark M. Lin, Robert Laureno
J Mov Disord. 2019;12(1):37-42.   Published online January 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.18046
  • 6,801 View
  • 241 Download
  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
To evaluate whether less pulsatile levodopa therapy (LPT) can reduce the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID).
Methods
This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with Parkinson’s disease at the movement disorders clinic of Medstar Washington Hospital Center. The study was not blinded or randomized. Patients were seen between August 2002 and August 2018. During these years, we treated patients with less pulsatile (6 doses daily) levodopa treatment to reduce LID. Occurrence of LID was recorded.
Results
Ninety-five patients with Parkinson’s disease taking levodopa were divided into two groups: 1) patients who were initially managed on LPT or who switched from traditional therapy (TT) (n = 61) (mean disease duration: 7.7 ± 4.8 years, mean levodopa duration: 5.6 ± 4.5 years and mean observation time: 4.3 ± 3.4 years), and 2) patients on TT throughout the observation period or until they developed dyskinesia (n = 34) (mean disease duration: 8.3 ± 3.8 years, mean levodopa duration: 6.2 ± 4.2 years and mean observation time: 4.1 ± 3.4 years). Three of the 61 LPT patients developed dyskinesia during the observation period. One of the patients developed dyskinesia after being switched to pulsatile doses by another doctor. In the other two, dyskinesia was minimal. In contrast to this 4.9% cumulative incidence, dyskinesia occurred in 50% (17/34) of TT patients, an incidence similar to that in published data (p < 0.001).
Conclusion
Less pulsatile levodopa with 6 daily doses was associated with a low incidence of LID. Further study of this method of treatment is warranted.

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Validation of the Conversion between the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive assessment in Korean Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Ryul Kim, Han-Joon Kim, Aryun Kim, Mi-Hee Jang, Hyun Jeong Kim, Beomseok Jeon
J Mov Disord. 2018;11(1):30-34.   Published online January 11, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.17038
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  • 13 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Two conversion tables between the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) have recently been established for Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study aimed to validate them in Korean patients with PD and to evaluate whether they could be influenced by educational level.
Methods
A total of 391 patients with PD who undertook both the Korean MMSE and the Korean MoCA during the same session were retrospectively assessed. The mean, median, and root mean squared error (RMSE) of the difference between the true and converted MMSE scores and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated according to educational level (6 or fewer years, 7–12 years, or 13 or more years).
Results
Both conversions had a median value of 0, with a small mean and RMSE of differences, and a high correlation between the true and converted MMSE scores. In the classification according to educational level, all groups had roughly similar values of the median, mean, RMSE, and ICC both within and between the conversions.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that both MMSE-MoCA conversion tables are useful instruments for transforming MoCA scores into converted MMSE scores in Korean patients with PD, regardless of educational level. These will greatly enhance the utility of the existing cognitive data from the Korean PD population in clinical and research settings.

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    Yu-Yuan Huang, Shu-Xia Qian, Qiao-Bing Guan, Ke-Liang Chen, Qian-Hua Zhao, Jia-Hong Lu, Qi-Hao Guo
    Applied Neuropsychology: Adult.2021; 28(1): 88.     CrossRef
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    Xiaoying Chen, Huangliang Wen, Jinni Wang, Yayan Yi, Jialan Wu, Xiaoyan Liao
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    Hwabeen Yang, Daehyuk Yim, Moon Ho Park, Antony Bayer
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    Sung Hoon Kang, Moon Ho Park
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  • Կոգնիտիվ վիճակի գնահատման Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) սանդղակի հայերեն տարբերակի ադապտացում և վալիդացում
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    Jannik Florian Scheffels, Leon Fröhlich, Elke Kalbe, Josef Kessler
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    Na-Ri Shin, Yeo-Jin Yi, Jun-Seon Choi
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    Eun Kyu Ji, Hae Hyun Wang, Sung June Jung, Kyoung Bo Lee, Joon Sung Kim, Bo Young Hong, Tae-Woo Kim, Seong Hoon Lim
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Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder in Parkinson’s Disease: A Preliminary Study
Chang Soo Kim, Young Hee Sung, Min Ju Kang, Kee Hyung Park
J Mov Disord. 2016;9(2):114-119.   Published online March 2, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.15039
  • 14,685 View
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  • 8 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). We aimed to assess the differences in the clinical characteristics of PD with and without RBD.
Methods
Forty-two patients previously diagnosed with PD were evaluated for clinical history, motor and cognitive functioning using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), autonomic symptoms, sleep characteristics using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the presence of RBD using the Korean version of the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ). The prevalence of RBD and the patients’ demographic features were evaluated. The patients were classified into two groups, PD with RBD and PD without RBD, based on the RBDSQ scores. The motor and cognitive functions, as well as other clinical features of the two groups were compared.
Results
A total of 42 PD patients were enrolled. Eighteen patients were classified as PD with RBD. Compared to PD without RBD, PD with RBD showed higher scores of rigidity in the UPDRS subscale. Regarding sleep problems, PD with RBD revealed higher sleep disturbance, lower sleep efficiency, and lower overall sleep quality in the PSQI. There was no difference in cognitive dysfunction between the two groups according to the Korean version of the MMSE.
Conclusions
PD with RBD was associated with poorer sleep and motor symptoms. Therefore, RBD symptoms in PD are possibly poor prognostic markers.

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    Maryam Haghshomar, Parnian Shobeiri, Seyed Arsalan Seyedi, Fatemeh Abbasi-Feijani, Amirhossein Poopak, Houman Sotoudeh, Arash Kamali, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
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Review Article
The Current Status of Deep Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Parkinson Disease in the Republic of Korea
Jung-Il Lee
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(3):115-121.   Published online September 10, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.15043
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  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease with an increasing prevalence in Korea. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a safe and effective surgical treatment option for this disease. The aim of this review was to provide an update regarding current DBS practices with respect to the treatment of PD in the Republic of Korea. The first DBS in Korea was performed in 2000; approximately 2,000 patients have undergone DBS for a variety of neurological disorders, the majority of whom were patients with PD. Approximately 150 new patients with PD receive DBS annually, and more than 20 centers perform DBS. However, DBS remains underutilized for many reasons, and the clinical case burden at many institutions is below the level presumed adequate for qualified practice. With a rapidly aging population and an evolving socioeconomic environment, the need for surgical intervention for PD is likely to increase significantly in the future. Many issues such as finances, education, and quality assurance must be resolved to cope with this need.

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    Preeti P. Doshi, Marc Russo, Paresh K. Doshi
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Original Article
Effect of Rivastigmine on Behavioral and Psychiatric Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease Dementia
Yoon-Sang Oh, Joong-Seok Kim, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(2):98-102.   Published online May 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.15041
  • 18,300 View
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  • 27 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective A recent study showed that rivastigmine and memantin improved behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Alzheimer’s dementia. Furthermore, according to recent guidelines presented by the Movement Disorder Society, rivastigmine is efficacious for the treatment of dementia in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We investigated the efficacy of rivastigmine for BPSD in patients with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD).
Methods Twenty-three patients in whom cognitive impairment occurred at least one year after a diagnosis of PD participated in this open-label trial. Cognitive, psychiatric, and motor symptoms were assessed before and after 24 weeks of treatment with rivastigmine using unstructured clinical assessments and rating scales including the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory.
Results Age (± standard deviation) was 74.7 ± 5.9 years, average duration of PD was 3.5 ± 3.7 years, Hoehn and Yahr scores were 2.2 ± 0.8, and baseline MMSE scores were 19.1 ± 4.2. Improvements in global mental symptoms and neuropsychiatric symptoms were significant; among them, hallucination, depression and appetite changes improved. Caregiver distress significantly decreased, including distress resulting from hallucinations, depression, apathy, and appetite changes.
Conclusions Although controlled trials are required, the findings suggest that rivastigmine is useful for control of several neuropsychiatric symptoms and beneficial for caregiver distress in patients with PDD.

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Review Article
Nonmotor Symptoms and Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease
Han-Joon Kim, Beom S. Jeon, Sun Ha Paek
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(2):83-91.   Published online May 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.15010
  • 22,518 View
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  • 39 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) is an established treatment for the motor symptoms in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). In addition to improvements in motor symptoms, many studies have reported changes in various nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) after STN DBS in patients with PD. Psychiatric symptoms, including depression, apathy, anxiety, and impulsivity, can worsen or improve depending on the electrical stimulation parameters, the locations of the stimulating contacts within the STN, and changes in medications after surgery. Global cognitive function is not affected by STN DBS, and there is no increase in the incidence of dementia after STN DBS compared to that after medical treatment, although clinically insignificant declines in verbal fluency have been consistently reported. Pain, especially PD-related pain, improves with STN DBS. Evidence regarding the effects of STN DBS on autonomic symptoms and sleep-related problems is limited and remains conflicting. Many symptoms of nonmotor fluctuations, which are occasionally more troublesome than motor fluctuations, improve with STN DBS. Although it is clear that NMSs are not target symptoms for STN DBS, NMSs have a strong influence on the quality of life of patients with PD, and clinicians should thus be aware of these NMSs when deciding whether to perform surgery and should pay attention to changes in these symptoms after STN DBS to ensure the optimal care for patients.

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Original Articles
Orthostatic and Supine Blood Pressures Are Associated with White Matter Hyperintensities in Parkinson Disease
Yoon-Sang Oh, Joong-Seok Kim, Kwang-Soo Lee
J Mov Disord. 2013;6(2):23-27.   Published online October 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.13006
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose:

Several reports on the elderly population have suggested that orthostatic hypotension is associated with white matter hyperintensities (WMH); however, little information is available on patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD).

Methods:

We analyzed the association blood pressure profiles during tilt table testing with WMH scores in 117 patients with PD. WMH were rated using the semiquantitative visual rating system proposed by Scheltens et al.

Results:

The presence of orthostatic hypotension was associated with increasing tendency of WMH score and the blood pressure changes during tilting and supine blood pressure were positively correlated with increasing WMH score.

Conclusions:

This finding indicates that hemodynamic changes associated with orthostatic hypotension may be associated with white matter changes in patients with PD.

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Unilateral Standing Leg Tremor as the Initial Manifestation of Parkinson Disease
Suk Yun Kang, Sook-Keun Song, Jin-Soo Kim, Young Ho Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2009;2(1):29-32.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.09007
  • 10,216 View
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background:

The aim of this study was to analyze the different forms of leg tremors exhibited while standing in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and to determine if the type of leg tremor exhibited is indicative of prognosis or treatment response in PD patients.

Methods:

We studied the clinical characteristics of five PD patients (all women; mean age, 59 years, range, 53–64 years) with unilateral standing leg tremor as the initial manifestation of PD, including their electrophysiological findings and the results of long-term follow-up.

Results:

For each patient, parkinsonism either existed at the time of onset of the initial symptoms or developed later. Patient responses to drugs were generally good, but one patient showed a poor response to drugs, even though she had only a low frequency leg tremor. For two patients whom we could observe during the 10-year follow-up period, neither the leg tremor nor parkinsonism was aggravated.

Conclusions:

There are two forms of unilateral standing leg tremor in PD. One form is high frequency, similar to the primary orthostatic tremor. The other is low frequency and similar to the parkinsonian resting tremor. Based on these observations, it appears that progression might be slow if PD patients have standing leg tremor as the initial manifestation.

Citations

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JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders