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JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders



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Original Articles
Four Cases with Peripheral Trauma Induced Involuntary Movements
Eun Joo Chung, Sang Jin Kim, Won Yong Lee, Jong Seok Bae, Eung Gyu Kim, Sung Hwa Pang
J Mov Disord. 2010;3(2):39-41.
  • 9,513 View
  • 58 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose

Although peripheral trauma induced movement disorders have been rarely reported, diagnostic criteria for peripherally induced movement disorders (PIMD) have been established. Because preexisting subclinical movement disorders, or secondary gain for compensation and legal purposes are difficult to confirm, differential diagnosis for physicians still remains difficult.

Case Reports

We present four patients developed movement disorders after relatively various intervals after traffic accident. Three patients of them showed tremor and one patient presented propriospinal myoclonus. In this report, we investigate whether peripheral trauma can lead to movement disorders and describe the relationship between peripheral injury and movement disorders in four cases.


Injury was serious enough to develop involuntary abnormal movements with pain and the latency between injury and the onset of movements in all of cases was less than 1 year. Thus, our cases showed temporal and anatomical correlation between injury and the onset of movement disorder, strongly supporting the cause-and-effect relationship by previous diagnostic criteria for peripherally induced movement disorders.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Early onset of propriospinal-like myoclonus in a child following a vertebral fracture
    Carlotta Facini, Marina Barsacchi, Benedetta Piccolo, Emanuela Claudia Turco, Francesco Pisani
    Neurology.2016; 87(9): 956.     CrossRef
  • Propriospinal myoclonus: The spectrum of clinical and neurophysiological phenotypes
    E. Antelmi, F. Provini
    Sleep Medicine Reviews.2014;[Epub]     CrossRef
Anticholinergic Agents Can Induce Oromandibular Dyskinesia
Hee-Young Shin, Won Tae Yoon, Won Yong Lee
J Mov Disord. 2009;2(2):69-71.
  • 18,931 View
  • 77 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose:

Oromandibular dyskinesia (OMD) can occur spontaneously or they can be induced by the conventional dopamine receptor antagonists. Anticholinergic medications have rarely been reported to cause OMD in parkinsonian or non-parkinsonian patients.


We analyzed the clinical features of two parkinsonian and one non-parkinsonian patients who experienced OMD after anticholinergic medication.


Each patient of our cases developed oromandibular symptoms in the temporal regions that were related to the addition of anticholinergic agents, and the symptoms were relieved following the discontinuation of the causative anticholinergic drugs. In one of our case, levodopa alone did not cause dyskinesia but augmented dyskinesia associated with anticholinergics.


Here we report two parkinsonian and one non-parkinsonian patients with OMD induced by the use of anticholinergic agents. In our cases, we could not find any other precipitating or actual secondary causes for the OMD symptoms in our patients. Furthermore, the fact that the OMD in our cases were ameliorated with cessation of anticholinergics suggests that it may be anticholinergic-induced.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Factors associated with anticholinergic-induced oral-buccal-lingual dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease
    Joonyoung Ha, Suk Yun Kang, Kyoungwon Baik, Young H. Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee, Min Seok Baek, Jin Yong Hong
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2024; 17(1): 109.     CrossRef
  • Impact of anticholinergic drugs withdrawal on motor function in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Yasaman Saeedi, Maryam Ghadimi, Mohammad Rohani, Maziar Emamikhah, Gholamali Shahidi, Mehdi Moghaddasi, Seyed Amir Hassan Habibi
    Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery.2021; 202: 106480.     CrossRef
  • Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia: A General Overview with Focus on the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 Inhibitors
    Nicki Niemann, Joseph Jankovic
    Drugs.2018; 78(5): 525.     CrossRef
Case Report
Painless Legs and Moving Toes as an Initial Presentation of Ischemic Stroke
Se Mi Oh, Won Tae Yoon, Ji Youn Kim, Hee-Young Shin, Won Yong Lee
J Mov Disord. 2009;2(1):40-42.
  • 40,184 View
  • 98 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Painless legs and moving toes is an unusual syndrome, which has not previously been reported as an initial presentation of ischemic stroke. We encountered a 78-year-old woman who developed dysarthria and involuntary movement of her left toes that was clinically regarded as painless legs and moving toes. These symptoms appeared abruptly and simultaneously as the initial symptoms of stroke, and improved gradually with conservative management by intravenous hydration for a month. We suggest that, in our case, a cortical brain lesion caused by ischemic stroke might be associated with the development of painless legs and moving toes.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Painful legs and moving toes syndrome
    Hiroki Tamura, Kosuke Ishizuka, Kiyoshi Shikino, Masatomi Ikusaka
    BMJ Case Reports.2021; 14(3): e240692.     CrossRef
  • Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesions: Etiology, Treatment Options and Prognosis
    Do-Young Kwon
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2016; 9(2): 63.     CrossRef
  • Painful legs and moving toes syndrome in a 16-year-old girl
    Seung Soo Kim, Yong Seung Hwang, Young Chang Kim
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics.2016; 59(9): 381.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Reliability of Serum Anti-thyroid Antibody Screening in the Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease and Multiple System Atrophy
Taek-Jun Lee, Hee-Young Shin, Won Tae Yoon, Won Yong Lee
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(2):75-81.
  • 34,294 View
  • 190 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Ataxia associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis autoantibodies has been reported as acquired cerebellar ataxia. However, relationship between anti-thyroid antibodies and cerebellar ataxia has not been clarified yet.


We aimed to analysis the relibility of serum anti-thyroid antibodies screening in the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA).


We enrolled 105 patients with clinically diagnosed PD and 75 patients with probable MSA. Patients with PD were classified into 70 patients with early PD (Hoehn & Yahr stage I to II) and 35 patients with late PD (Hoehn & Yahr stage III to IV). In MSA, 28 patients were classified as MSA-p (parkinsonism predominant) and 47 MSA-c (cerebellar predominant). For analysis of thyroid function, serum free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), anti-thyroglobuline (TG) antibodies and anti-microsomal antibodies were measured. Cut-off level for abnormal titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were defiend as above 100 U/ml.


Abnormally high titer of serum anti-TG antibodies and anti-microsomal antibodies was more frequently observed in MSA than in PD (p =0.001 and 0.003, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in the frequency of abnormal titer either between MSA-c and MSA-p (p>0.05) nor between early PD and late PD (p>0.05). Among clinical parameters, only ataxia was correlated with both titer of anti-TG antibody and anti-microsomal antibody (p=0.007 and 0.002, respectively).


These results suggest that high titer of anti-thyroid antibodies may be associated with MSA rather than PD and screening of serum anti-thyroid antibodies may be helpful for discrimiation of PD from MSA. However, anti-thyroid antibodies screening may not be helpful to differentiate MSA-c from MSA-p.

The Characteristics of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease and Recognition of Cognitive Symptom by Questionnaire
Hee Young Shin, Won Yong Lee, Kun-Woo Park
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(1):38-46.
  • 8,326 View
  • 271 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms including cognitive, autonomic, sleep, and sensory disturbances. Cognitive impairment may occur in up to 80% of PD patients, and dementia in approximately 30%. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the frequency of cognitive impairment and the characteristics of cognitive deficits and to know the possibility of early detection of cognitive deficits in outpatient clinics with the questionnaire for patients and caregivers.


A total of 129 consecutive patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease were visited movement clinic from March 2006 to August 2006. Eighty-five patients performed cognitive test and questionnaires. All patients had motor symptoms with Hoehn and Yahr stage 0.5 to 3 (mean: 1.98±0.617), and evaluated with cognition by K-MMSE (Korean version of Mini-mental status examination), 7-MS (7-minutes screen test), and demographic features.


The frequency of cognitive impairment in PD patients was 44.7% (38/85), among them thirty (78.9%) patients complained memory disturbance. The characteristics of cognitive test were retrieval defect in memory, visuospatial dysfunction and categorical word fluency. With questionnaire, the complaint of memory decline and difficulties in activity of daily living (ADL) w ere important points of cognitive deficit in PD patients. However questionnaire did not showed significant correlation between complain of memory decline and cognitive deficit, only regular check with cognitive function test revealed the patient’s early cognitive impairment.


The cognitive impairment was frequent in PD patients. The characteristics of cognitive testing w ere retrieval defect in memory function and frontal executive dysfunction.

Review Article
Transcranial Sonography in Parkinson’s Disease and Parkinsonism
Won Yong Lee, Ji Youn Kim, Seong Tae Kim
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(1):6-12.
  • 11,754 View
  • 322 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Transcranial sonography (TCS) is potentially useful for the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is attractive because it is non-invasive, easily accessible and low risk test. So far, up to twenties of TCS studies in Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism have been reported. However, studies on TCS have been restricted to European populations and no such study has been performed in Asian especially Korean population. To investigate the efficacy of TCS in Korean PD patients and its correlation with the clinical features, we carried out midbrain TCS in PD patients and normal controls, and evaluated the area of the substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity and its ratio to the area of the whole m idbrain. According to our study, we could conclude that midbrain TCS is an effective diagnostic tool for detecting PD in the Korean population. In this review, we additionally summarized clinical application of TCS in differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonism as well as restless leg syndrome and depression. Journal of Movement Disorders 1(1):6-12, 2008


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Validity and sensitivity of instrumented postural and gait assessment using low-cost devices in Parkinson’s disease
    Ignacio Álvarez, Jorge Latorre, Miquel Aguilar, Pau Pastor, Roberto Llorens
    Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef

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