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A Practical Guide for Clinical Approach to Patients With Huntington’s Disease in Korea
Chaewon Shin, Ryul Kim, Dallah Yoo, Eungseok Oh, Jangsup Moon, Minkyeong Kim, Jee-Young Lee, Jong-Min Kim, Seong-Beom Koh, Manho Kim, Beomseok Jeon
J Mov Disord. 2024;17(2):138-149.   Published online March 12, 2024
  • 1,329 View
  • 70 Download
Original Article
Caregiver Burden of Patients With Huntington’s Disease in South Korea
Chan Young Lee, Chaewon Shin, Yun Su Hwang, Eungseok Oh, Manho Kim, Hyun Sook Kim, Sun Ju Chung, Young Hee Sung, Won Tae Yoon, Jin Whan Cho, Jae-Hyeok Lee, Han-Joon Kim, Hee Jin Chang, Beomseok Jeon, Kyung Ah Woo, Seong-Beom Koh, Kyum-Yil Kwon, Jangsup Moon, Young Eun Kim, Jee-Young Lee
J Mov Disord. 2024;17(1):30-37.   Published online September 11, 2023
  • 2,660 View
  • 208 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
This is the first prospective cohort study of Huntington’s disease (HD) in Korea. This study aimed to investigate the caregiver burden in relation to the characteristics of patients and caregivers.
From August 2020 to February 2022, we enrolled patients with HD from 13 university hospitals in Korea. We used the 12-item Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI-12) to evaluate the caregiver burden. We evaluated the clinical associations of the ZBI-12 scores by linear regression analysis and investigated the differences between the low- and high-burden groups.
Sixty-five patients with HD and 45 caregivers were enrolled in this cohort study. The average age at onset of motor symptoms was 49.3 ± 12.3 years, with an average cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG)n of 42.9 ± 4.0 (38–65). The median ZBI-12 score among our caregivers was 17.6 ± 14.2. A higher caregiver burden was associated with a more severe Shoulson–Fahn stage (p = 0.038) of the patients. A higher ZBI-12 score was also associated with lower independence scale (B = -0.154, p = 0.006) and functional capacity (B = -1.082, p = 0.002) scores of patients. The caregiving duration was longer in the high- than in the low-burden group. Caregivers’ demographics, blood relation, and marital and social status did not affect the burden significantly.
HD patients’ neurological status exerts an enormous impact on the caregiver burden regardless of the demographic or social status of the caregiver. This study emphasizes the need to establish an optimal support system for families dealing with HD in Korea. A future longitudinal analysis could help us understand how disease progression aggravates the caregiver burden throughout the entire disease course.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Practical Guide for Clinical Approach to Patients With Huntington’s Disease in Korea
    Chaewon Shin, Ryul Kim, Dallah Yoo, Eungseok Oh, Jangsup Moon, Minkyeong Kim, Jee-Young Lee, Jong-Min Kim, Seong-Beom Koh, Manho Kim, Beomseok Jeon
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2024; 17(2): 138.     CrossRef
Review Article
Gene Therapy for Huntington’s Disease: The Final Strategy for a Cure?
Seulgi Byun, Mijung Lee, Manho Kim
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(1):15-20.   Published online November 17, 2021
  • 7,519 View
  • 437 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Huntington’s disease (HD) has become a target of the first clinical trials for gene therapy among movement disorders with a genetic origin. More than 100 clinical trials regarding HD have been tried, but all failed, although there were some improvements limited to symptomatic support. Compared to other neurogenetic disorders, HD is known to have a single genetic target. Thus, this is an advantage and its cure is more feasible than any other movement disorder with heterogeneous genetic causes. In this review paper, the authors attempt to cover the characteristics of HD itself while providing an overview of the gene transfer methods currently being researched, and will introduce an experimental trial with a preclinical model of HD followed by an update on the ongoing clinical trials for patients with HD.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Huntington's Disease Gene Discovery
    Gustavo L. Franklin, Hélio A.G. Teive, Fernando Spina Tensini, Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo, Nayra de Souza Carvalho de Lima, Diego de Castro de dos Santos, Alex T. Meira, Sarah J. Tabrizi
    Movement Disorders.2024; 39(2): 227.     CrossRef
  • Optimizing Screening for Intrastriatal Interventions in Huntington's Disease Using Predictive Models
    Matthew J. Barrett, Ahmed Negida, Nitai Mukhopadhyay, Jin K. Kim, Huma Nawaz, Jefin Jose, Claudia Testa
    Movement Disorders.2024; 39(5): 855.     CrossRef
  • Exosomes for neurodegenerative diseases: diagnosis and targeted therapy
    Hui Tao, Bo Gao
    Journal of Neurology.2024; 271(6): 3050.     CrossRef
  • Exploring molecular mechanisms, therapeutic strategies, and clinical manifestations of Huntington’s disease
    Alaa Shafie, Amal Adnan Ashour, Saleha Anwar, Farah Anjum, Md. Imtaiyaz Hassan
    Archives of Pharmacal Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Positron Emission Tomography Quantitative Assessment of Off-Target Whole-Body Biodistribution of I-124-Labeled Adeno-Associated Virus Capsids Administered to Cerebral Spinal Fluid
    Jonathan B. Rosenberg, Edward K. Fung, Jonathan P. Dyke, Bishnu P. De, Howard Lou, James M. Kelly, Layla Reejhsinghani, Rodolfo J. Ricart Arbona, Dolan Sondhi, Stephen M. Kaminsky, Nathalie Cartier, Christian Hinderer, Juliette Hordeaux, James M. Wilson,
    Human Gene Therapy.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • CRISPR: a tool with potential for genomic reprogramming in neurological disorders
    Yogesh K. Dhuriya, Aijaz A. Naik
    Molecular Biology Reports.2023; 50(2): 1845.     CrossRef
  • Gene therapy for selected neuromuscular and trinucleotide repeat disorders – An insight to subsume South Asia for multicenter clinical trials
    Nalaka Wijekoon, Lakmal Gonawala, Pyara Ratnayake, Darshana Sirisena, Harsha Gunasekara, Athula Dissanayake, Sunethra Senanayake, Ajantha Keshavaraj, Yetrib Hathout, Harry W.M. Steinbusch, Chandra Mohan, Ashwin Dalal, Eric Hoffman, K.Ranil D de Silva
    IBRO Neuroscience Reports.2023; 14: 146.     CrossRef
  • Huntington’s Disease Drug Development: A Phase 3 Pipeline Analysis
    Hannah J. Van de Roovaart, Nguyen Nguyen, Timothy D. Veenstra
    Pharmaceuticals.2023; 16(11): 1513.     CrossRef
  • Bioinspired Approaches for Central Nervous System Targeted Gene Delivery
    Jyotish Kumar, Afroz Karim, Ummy Habiba Sweety, Hemen Sarma, Md Nurunnabi, Mahesh Narayan
    ACS Applied Bio Materials.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Mitochondrial organization and structure are compromised in fibroblasts from patients with Huntington’s disease
    Marie Vanisova, Hana Stufkova, Michaela Kohoutova, Tereza Rakosnikova, Jana Krizova, Jiri Klempir, Irena Rysankova, Jan Roth, Jiri Zeman, Hana Hansikova
    Ultrastructural Pathology.2022; 46(5): 462.     CrossRef
  • Pathogenesis of Huntington’s Disease: An Emphasis on Molecular Pathways and Prevention by Natural Remedies
    Zainab Irfan, Sofia Khanam, Varnita Karmakar, Sayeed Mohammed Firdous, Bothaina Samih Ismail Abou El Khier, Ilyas Khan, Muneeb U. Rehman, Andleeb Khan
    Brain Sciences.2022; 12(10): 1389.     CrossRef
Original Article
Exosome-Based Delivery of miR-124 in a Huntington’s Disease Model
Soon-Tae Lee, Wooseok Im, Jae-Jun Ban, Mijung Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu, Manho Kim
J Mov Disord. 2017;10(1):45-52.   Published online January 18, 2017
  • 16,703 View
  • 369 Download
  • 110 Web of Science
  • 94 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease that is caused by abnormal CAG expansion. Altered microRNA (miRNA) expression also causes abnormal gene regulation in this neurodegenerative disease. The delivery of abnormally downregulated miRNAs might restore normal gene regulation and have a therapeutic effect.
We developed an exosome-based delivery method to treat this neurodegenerative disease. miR-124, one of the key miRNAs that is repressed in HD, was stably overexpressed in a stable cell line. Exosomes were then harvested from these cells using an optimized protocol. The exosomes (Exo-124) exhibited a high level of miR-124 expression and were taken up by recipient cells.
When Exo-124 was injected into the striatum of R6/2 transgenic HD mice, expression of the target gene, RE1-Silencing Transcription Factor, was reduced. However, Exo-124 treatment did not produce significant behavioral improvement.
This study serves as a proof of concept for exosome-based delivery of miRNA in neurodegenerative diseases.


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    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(2): 927.     CrossRef
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    Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Review Articles
Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 for Gene Editing in Hereditary Movement Disorders
Wooseok Im, Jangsup Moon, Manho Kim
J Mov Disord. 2016;9(3):136-143.   Published online September 21, 2016
  • 20,953 View
  • 627 Download
  • 14 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Gene therapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating hereditary movement disorders, including hereditary ataxia, dystonia, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Genome editing is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted or replaced in the genome using modified nucleases. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) has been used as an essential tool in biotechnology. Cas9 is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease enzyme that was originally associated with the adaptive immune system of Streptococcus pyogenes and is now being utilized as a genome editing tool to induce double strand breaks in DNA. CRISPR/Cas9 has advantages in terms of clinical applicability over other genome editing technologies such as zinc-finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases because of easy in vivo delivery. Here, we review and discuss the applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 to preclinical studies or gene therapy in hereditary movement disorders.


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Cell Therapy Strategies vs. Paracrine Effect in Huntington’s Disease
Wooseok Im, Manho Kim
J Mov Disord. 2014;7(1):1-6.   Published online April 30, 2014
  • 14,225 View
  • 88 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder. The most common symptom of HD is abnormal involuntary writhing movements, called chorea. Antipsychotics and tetrabenazine are used to alleviate the signs and symptoms of HD. Stem cells have been investigated for use in neurodegenerative disorders to develop cell therapy strategies. Recent evidence indicates that the beneficial effects of stem cell therapies are actually mediated by secretory molecules, as well as cell replacement. Although stem cell studies show that cell transplantation provides cellular improvement around lesions in in vivo models, further work is required to elucidate some issues before the clinical application of stem cells. These issues include the precise mechanism of action, delivery method, toxicity and safety. With a focus on HD, this review summarizes cell therapy strategies and the paracrine effect of stem cells.


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  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Huntington’s Disease: Disease Modeling and the Potential for Cell-Based Therapy
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Original Article
Growth Hormone Deteriorates the Functional Outcome in an Experimental Model of Huntington’s Disease Induced by 3-Nitropionic Acid
Jung-Eun Park, Soon-Tae Lee, Woo-Seok Im, Manho Kim
J Mov Disord. 2013;6(2):28-33.   Published online October 30, 2013
  • 11,226 View
  • 63 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose:

Growth hormone (GH) has been frequently used to control the aging process in healthy individuals, probably due to its slowing effect on senescence-associated degeneration. Mitochondrial dysfunction is related to the aging process, and one of the chemical models of Huntington’s disease is that it can be induced by mitochondrial toxin. To investigate the potential application of GH to modify the progression of Huntington’s disease (HD), we examined whether GH can protect the functional deterioration by striatal damage induced by 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP).


3NP (63 mg/kg/day) was delivered to Lewis rats by osmotic pumps for five consecutive days, and the rats received intraperitoneal administration of GH or vehicle (saline) throughout the experiment. Neurological deficits and body weight were monitored. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test was performed to further determine the mitochondrial activity in cultured N18TG2 neuroblastoma cells in vitro.


3NP-treated rats showed progressive neurologic deficits with striatal damage. Application of GH accelerated behavioral deterioration, particularly between day 3 and day 5, resulting in reduced survival outcome. The body weights of rats given 3NP were decreased, but GH did not affect such decrease compared to the non-treated control group. The effect of GH on cultured neuronal cells was a decrease in the MTT absorbance, suggesting a lower number of cells in a dose dependent pattern.


Those results suggest that application of GH to a 3NP-induced experimental model of HD deteriorates the progress of functional deficits, possibly disturbing mitochondrial activities.


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Review Article
MicroRNAs in Experimental Models of Movement Disorders
Soon-Tae Lee, Manho Kim
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(2):55-59.
  • 30,130 View
  • 49 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs comprised of 20–25 nucleotides that regulates gene expression by inducing translational repression or degradation of target mRNA. The importance of miRNAs as a mediator of disease pathogenesis and therapeutic targets is rapidly emerging in neuroscience, as well as oncology, immunology, and cardiovascular diseases. In Parkinson’s disease and related disorders, multiple studies have identified the implications of specific miRNAs and the polymorphisms of miRNA target genes during the disease pathogenesis. With a focus on Parkinson’s disease, spinocerebellar ataxia, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and Huntington’s disease, this review summarizes and interprets the observations, and proposes future research topics in this field.


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Case Report
A Case of Juvenile Huntington Disease in a 6-Year-Old Boy
Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Soon-Tae Lee, Manho Kim
J Mov Disord. 2010;3(2):45-47.
  • 9,354 View
  • 65 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder distinguished by the triad of dominant inheritance, choreoathetosis and dementia, usually with onset in the fourth and fifth decades. It is caused by an unstable cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat expansion in the gene IT15 in locus 4p16.3. Juvenile HD that constitutes about 3% to 10% of all patients is clinically different from adult-onset form and characterized by a larger number of CAG repeats typically exceeding 60. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with myoclonic seizure and 140 CAG repeats confirmed by molecular genetic analysis.


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