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JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders



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1 "Kalpana Prasad"
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Case Report
Progressive Encephalomyelitis with Rigidity and Myoclonus in an Intellectually Disabled Patient Mimicking Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
Zheyu Xu, Kalpana Prasad, Tianrong Yeo
J Mov Disord. 2017;10(2):99-101.   Published online March 24, 2017
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We present a case of 32-year-old male with profound mental retardation and autism spectrum disorder who had presented with seizures, rigidity and elevated creatine kinase and was initially diagnosed as neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). The patient subsequently had a complicated clinical course, developing refractory status epilepticus, which lead to the eventual diagnosis of progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM). We discuss the clinical similarities and differences between NMS and PERM, and highlight the need to consider alternative diagnoses when the clinical picture of NMS is atypical, particularly in this patient group where the history and clinical examination may be challenging.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Progressive Encephalomyelitis with Rigidity and Myoclonus (PERM)-like Symptoms Associated with Anti-ganglionic Acetylcholine Receptor Antibodies
    Yuki Kitazaki, Masamichi Ikawa, Toru Kishitani, Tomoko Kamisawa, Shunya Nakane, Yasunari Nakamoto, Tadanori Hamano
    Internal Medicine.2021; 60(14): 2307.     CrossRef
  • A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Immunoglobulin G Abnormalities and the Therapeutic Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG) in Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Daniel A Rossignol, Richard E Frye
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2021; 11(6): 488.     CrossRef
  • Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity: A Taiwanese case and review of literature
    Anna Chang, Kuan-yu Lin, Kai-Ju Chuang, Patrick Waters, Sarosh Irani, Victor Mgbachi, Hsu-Ling Yeh, Li-Ming Lien, Hou-Chang Chiu, Wei-Hung Chen
    Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery.2021; 208: 106807.     CrossRef
  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Case Report and Brief Review of Recent Literature
    Stefano Berloffa, Claudia Dosi, Benedetta Tascini, Beatrice Fossati, Ilaria Lupetti, Gabriele Masi
    Children.2021; 8(12): 1201.     CrossRef
  • A case report of rigidity and recurrent lower limb myoclonus: progressive encephalomyelitis rigidity and myoclonus syndrome, a chameleon
    Aurélie Degeneffe, Marie Dagonnier, Alain D’hondt, Jose Antonio Elosegi
    BMC Neurology.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders