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JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders

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Review Article
Gastrointestinal Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Joong-Seok Kim, Hye-Young Sung
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(2):76-82.   Published online May 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.15008
  • 38,462 View
  • 246 Download
  • 33 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Currently, gastrointestinal dysfunctions in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are well-recognized problems and are known to be an initial symptom in the pathological process that eventually results in PD. Gastrointestinal symptoms may result from the involvement of either the central or enteric nervous systems, or these symptoms may be side effects of antiparkinsonian medications. Weight loss, excessive salivation, dysphagia, nausea/gastroparesis, constipation, and defecation dysfunction all may occur. Increased identification and early detection of these symptoms can result in a significant improvement in the quality of life for PD patients.
Original Article
The Frequency and Severity of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Early Parkinson’s Disease
Hye-Young Sung, Jeong-Wook Park, Joong-Seok Kim
J Mov Disord. 2014;7(1):7-12.   Published online April 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.14002
  • 15,622 View
  • 154 Download
  • 38 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective: Although gastrointestinal dysfunctions occur in the majority of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), they are often unrecognized because many patients remain relatively asymptomatic in the early stage. We investigated the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with PD using newly developed gastrointestinal symptom questionnaires.
Methods: Early PD patients with a symptom duration not exceeding 3 years were included in this study. All PD patients were evaluated using a questionnaire, which consisted of three relevant domains: oropharyngoesophageal (10 items); gastric (3 items); and intestinal-anorectal (7 items). The frequency of symptoms was calculated as a proportion with an item score ≥ 2.
Results: Of the 54 patients enrolled, 48 patients (88.9%) responded that bowel symptoms developed before the onset of Parkinsonian motor symptoms, and four patients reported that the onset of two types of symptoms (i.e., bowel and neurological) occurred approximately simultaneously, with only months between them. The frequencies of gastrointestinal symptoms are as follows: speech disturbance (40.7%), drooling (24.1%), sense of getting stuck (31.5%), choking (27.8%), globus pharyngis (16.7%), repetitive deglutition (29.6%), pain during swallowing (5.6%), food regurgitation (3.7%), acid reflux (7.4%), nausea/ vomiting (11.1%), early satiety (16.7%), postprandial fullness (14.8%), epigastric soreness (9.3%), abdominal pain (3.7%), constipation (46.3%), excessive strain during defecation (33.3%), fecal incontinence (7.4%), tenesmus (20.4%), loose stool or diarrhea (3.7%), and difficulty in relaxing anal sphincter (11.1%). Two patients were scored at zero.
Conclusions: Our findings confirm that gastrointestinal dysfunction occurs in early PD in relatively high frequency.

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders