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Case Report
Extensive Leukoencephalopathy in Spastic Paraplegia Type 4: Possible Role of Cerebral Autosomal Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephelopathy
Jin Ho Jung, Jung Hwa Seo, Sukyoon Lee, Young Jin Heo, Donghyun Kim, Eun Joo Chung, Seong-il Oh
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(1):71-74.   Published online December 24, 2021
  • 3,861 View
  • 129 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Despite recent advances in next-generation sequencing, the underlying etiology of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy has been difficult to elucidate. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a representative hereditary adult-onset leukoencephalopathy associated with vasculopathy. Leukoencephalopathy in spastic paraplegia type 4 (SPG4) is known to be rare, but it might be underestimated because most spastic paraplegia with leukoencephalopathy is rarely considered. We report a case of co-occurring SPG4 and CADASIL. A 61-year-old male presented with sudden visual impairment after a headache. He showed a spastic gait and had a family history with similar symptoms. An SPG4 gene mutation and a pathogenic variant in the NOTCH3 gene were found. This case shows that the diverse and complex clinical manifestations of patients with extensive leukoencephalopathy are related to more than one gene mutation. We also suggest the necessity for relevant genetic tests in the diagnosis of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Clinical and genetic characteristics in a Chinese cohort of complex spastic paraplegia type 4
    Li Yao, Yuwen Cao, Chao Zhang, Xiaojun Huang, Wotu Tian, Li Cao
    Clinical Genetics.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Review Article
123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Myocardial Scintigraphy in Lewy Body-Related Disorders: A Literature Review
Eun Joo Chung, Sang Jin Kim
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(2):55-66.   Published online May 31, 2015
  • 18,649 View
  • 197 Download
  • 45 Web of Science
  • 43 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Lewy body-related disorders are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, which have abnormal aggregations of α-synuclein in the nigral and extranigral areas, including in the heart. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is a well-known tool to evaluate cardiac sympathetic denervation in the Lewy body-related disorders. MIBG scintigraphy showed low uptake of MIBG in the Lewy body-related disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, pure autonomic failure and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review summarizes previous results on the diagnostic applications of MIBG scintigraphy in Lewy body-related disorders.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Sudden cardiac death in synucleinopathies
    Keivan Javanshiri, Tove Drakenberg, Mattias Haglund, Elisabet Englund
    Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology.2023; 82(3): 242.     CrossRef
  • Optimal Protocol and Clinical Usefulness of 123I-MIBG Cardiac Scintigraphy for Differentiation of Parkinson’s Disease and Dementia with Lewy Body from Non-Parkinson’s Diseases
    In Kook Chun
    Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.2023; 57(3): 145.     CrossRef
  • Cardiac 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) Scintigraphy in Parkinson’s Disease: A Comprehensive Review
    Jamir Pitton Rissardo, Ana Letícia Fornari Caprara
    Brain Sciences.2023; 13(10): 1471.     CrossRef
  • Differentiating Dementia with Lewy Bodies from Alzheimer's Disease Using the Fall Risk Evaluation Questionnaire
    Masashi Tsujimoto, Keisuke Suzuki, Akinori Takeda, Naoki Saji, Takashi Sakurai, Yukihiko Washimi
    Internal Medicine.2022; 61(11): 1687.     CrossRef
  • Association of plasma α-synuclein with cardiac 123I-MIBG scintigraphy in early Parkinson’s disease
    Don Gueu Park, Juhee Kang, Young-Sil An, Jaerak Chang, Jung Han Yoon
    Neuroscience Letters.2022; 770: 136399.     CrossRef
  • Clinical and imaging evidence of brain-first and body-first Parkinson's disease
    Jacob Horsager, Karoline Knudsen, Michael Sommerauer
    Neurobiology of Disease.2022; 164: 105626.     CrossRef
  • Cardiac Alpha-Synuclein Is Present in Alpha-Synucleinopathies
    Keivan Javanshiri, Tove Drakenberg, Mattias Haglund, Elisabet Englund
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2022; 12(4): 1125.     CrossRef
  • Cardiac 123I-MIBG normal uptake values are population-specific: Results from a cohort of controls over 60 years of age
    G. Roberts, J.J. Lloyd, J.P.M. Kane, R. Durcan, S. Lawley, K. Howe, G.S. Petrides, J.T. O’Brien, A.J. Thomas
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology.2021; 28(4): 1692.     CrossRef
  • Uniformity of cardiac 123I-MIBG uptake on SPECT images in older adults with normal cognition and patients with dementia
    Gemma Roberts, Jim J. Lloyd, Elizabeth Jefferson, Joseph P.M. Kane, Rory Durcan, Sarah Lawley, George S. Petrides, Kim Howe, Iftikhar Haq, John T. O’Brien, Alan J. Thomas
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology.2021; 28(5): 2151.     CrossRef
  • Myocardial Sympathetic Innervation Imaging with MIBG in Dementia with Lewy Bodies
    Gagandeep Choudhary, Pradeep Bhambhvani
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology.2021; 28(5): 2164.     CrossRef
  • Identification of BAG2 and Cathepsin D as Plasma Biomarkers for Parkinson’s Disease
    Juhee Kang, Jae Whan Kim, Hansol Heo, Jihyun Lee, Kwan Yong Park, Jung Han Yoon, Jaerak Chang
    Clinical and Translational Science.2021; 14(2): 606.     CrossRef
  • Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease
    Casper Skjærbæk, Karoline Knudsen, Jacob Horsager, Per Borghammer
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 10(3): 493.     CrossRef
  • Management of Hypertension and Blood Pressure Dysregulation in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease—a Systematic Review
    Vasiliki Katsi, Ilias Papakonstantinou, Eirini Solomou, Alexios S. Antonopoulos, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Konstantinos Tsioufis
    Current Hypertension Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Lewy Body Dementias: A Coin with Two Sides?
    Ángela Milán-Tomás, Marta Fernández-Matarrubia, María Cruz Rodríguez-Oroz
    Behavioral Sciences.2021; 11(7): 94.     CrossRef
  • Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction Is Associated with Severity of REM Sleep without Atonia in Isolated REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
    Sooyeoun You, Kyoung Sook Won, Keun Tae Kim, Hyang Woon Lee, Yong Won Cho
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 10(22): 5414.     CrossRef
  • A diagnostic strategy for Lewy body disease using DAT-SPECT, MIBG and Combined index
    Fumi Sakamoto, Shinya Shiraishi, Koji Ogasawara, Noriko Tsuda, Masataka Nakagawa, Seiji Tomiguchi, Yasuyuki Yamashita
    Annals of Nuclear Medicine.2020; 34(6): 415.     CrossRef
  • Difference in cardiovascular response during orthostatic stress in Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy
    Tomohiko Nakamura, Masashi Suzuki, Masamichi Ueda, Yumiko Harada, Masaaki Hirayama, Masahisa Katsuno
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2020; 127(10): 1377.     CrossRef
  • Striatal dopamine activity and myocardial 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake in early Parkinson's disease
    Yoon-Sang Oh, Joong-Seok Kim, Sang-Won Yoo, Eo-Jin Hwang, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Kwang-Soo Lee
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2019; 63: 156.     CrossRef
  • Initial Versus Follow-up Sequential Myocardial 123I-MIBG Scintigraphy to Discriminate Parkinson Disease From Atypical Parkinsonian Syndromes
    Dong-Woo Ryu, Joong-Seok Kim, Jee-Eun Lee, Yoon-Sang Oh, Sang-Won Yoo, Ie Ryung Yoo, Kwang-Soo Lee
    Clinical Nuclear Medicine.2019; 44(4): 282.     CrossRef
  • Cardiac 123I-MIBG planar heart to mediastinum ratios depend on patient size; phantom studies suggest SPECT-CT could improve quantification
    Gemma Roberts, Jim J Lloyd, George S Petrides, John T O’Brien, Alan J Thomas
    Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express.2019; 6(1): 015011.     CrossRef
  • Does sympathetic dysfunction occur before denervation in pure autonomic failure?
    Ling Guo, Murray D. Esler, Carolina Sari, Sarah Phillips, Elisabeth A. Lambert, Nora E. Straznicky, Gavin W. Lambert, Susan J. Corcoran
    Clinical Science.2018; 132(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Validation of Iodine-131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy in Parkinsonism: A preliminary study
    Dan Xu, Wenjia Zhu, Li Huo, Shikun Zhu, Fang Li, Han Wang
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Extensive Delayed Brain Atrophy after Resuscitation in a Patient with Multiple System Atrophy
    Sazuku Nisitani, Hirofumi Miyoshi, Yoji Katsuoka
    Frontiers in Neurology.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Optimizing Parkinson’s disease diagnosis: the role of a dual nuclear imaging algorithm
    J. William Langston, Jesse C. Wiley, Michele Tagliati
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic biomarkers for Parkinson’s disease at a glance: where are we?
    Ilaria Cova, Alberto Priori
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2018; 125(10): 1417.     CrossRef
  • Imaging the Autonomic Nervous System in Parkinson’s Disease
    Karoline Knudsen, Per Borghammer
    Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Review of Dementia with Lewy Bodies' Impact, Diagnostic Criteria and Treatment
    Samuel D. Capouch, Martin R. Farlow, Jared R. Brosch
    Neurology and Therapy.2018; 7(2): 249.     CrossRef
  • The Utility of the Combined Use of 123I-FP-CIT and 123I-MIBG Myocardial Scintigraphy in Differentiating Parkinson’s Disease from Other Parkinsonian Syndromes
    Eiji Matsusue, Yoshio Fujihara, Kenichiro Tanaka, Yuki Aozasa, Manabu Shimoda, Hiroyuki Nakayasu, Kazuhiko Nakamura, Toshihide Ogawa
    Yonago Acta Medica.2018; 61(2): 117.     CrossRef
  • Correction of collimator-dependent differences in the heart-to-mediastinum ratio in 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac sympathetic imaging: Determination of conversion equations using point-source imaging
    Yusuke Inoue, Yutaka Abe, Kei Kikuchi, Keiji Matsunaga, Ray Masuda, Kazutoshi Nishiyama
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology.2017; 24(5): 1725.     CrossRef
  • Normal ‘heart’ in Parkinson's disease: is this a distinct clinical phenotype?
    J.‐S. Kim, H.‐E. Park, I.‐S. Park, Y.‐S. Oh, D.‐W. Ryu, I.‐U. Song, Y.‐A. Jung, I. R. Yoo, H.‐S. Choi, P. H. Lee, K.‐S. Lee
    European Journal of Neurology.2017; 24(2): 349.     CrossRef
  • Diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies: can 123I-IMP and 123I-MIBG scintigraphy yield new core features?
    Fumi Sakamoto, Shinya Shiraishi, Noriko Tsuda, Mamoru Hashimoto, Seiji Tomiguchi, Manabu Ikeda, Yasuyuki Yamashita
    The British Journal of Radiology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Imaging Parkinson’s disease below the neck
    Per Borghammer, Karoline Knudsen, Tatyana D. Fedorova, David J. Brooks
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The utility of the combination of a SPECT study with [123I]-FP-CIT of dopamine transporters and [123I]-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in differentiating Parkinson disease from other degenerative parkinsonian syndromes
    Naoto Uyama, Hideki Otsuka, Takayoshi Shinya, Yoichi Otomi, Masafumi Harada, Wataru Sako, Yuishin Izumi, Ryuji Kaji, Yuya Watanabe, Satoru Takashi, Yamato Kunikane
    Nuclear Medicine Communications.2017; 38(6): 487.     CrossRef
  • Cardiac sympathetic denervation and dementia in de novo Parkinson's disease: A 7-year follow-up study
    Mun Hee Choi, Jung Han Yoon, Suk Woo Yong
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2017; 381: 291.     CrossRef
  • Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunctions in elderly patients with essential tremor: comparison with healthy controls
    Joong-Seok Kim, Yoon-Sang Oh, Hyung-Eun Park, Si-Hoon Lee, Jeong-Wook Park, In-Uk Song, Jae-Young An, Hun-Jun Park, Byung-Chul Son, Kwang-Soo Lee
    Neurological Sciences.2016; 37(5): 711.     CrossRef
  • Orthostatic hypotension and cardiac sympathetic denervation in Parkinson disease patients with REM sleep behavioral disorder
    Joong-Seok Kim, Hyung-Eun Park, Yoon-Sang Oh, Si-Hoon Lee, Jeong-Wook Park, Byung-chul Son, Kwang-Soo Lee
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2016; 362: 59.     CrossRef
  • [123]FP-CIT SPECT scans initially rated as normal became abnormal over time in patients with probable dementia with Lewy bodies
    J. J. van der Zande, J. Booij, P. Scheltens, P. G. H. M. Raijmakers, A. W. Lemstra
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.2016; 43(6): 1060.     CrossRef
  • Is dopamine transporter invariably impaired at the time of diagnosis in dementia with Lewy bodies?
    Flavio Nobili, Dario Arnaldi, Silvia Morbelli
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.2016; 43(6): 1056.     CrossRef
  • Imaging Systemic Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease
    Per Borghammer, Karoline Knudsen, David J. Brooks
    Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • 123I‐2β‐carbomethoxy‐3β‐(4‐iodophenyl)‐N‐(3‐fluoropropyl) nortropane single photon emission computed tomography and 123I‐metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in differentiating dementia with lewy bodies from other dementias: A comparative study
    Pietro Tiraboschi, Angelo Corso, Ugo Paolo Guerra, Flavio Nobili, Arnoldo Piccardo, Maria Lucia Calcagni, Duccio Volterrani, Diego Cecchin, Mauro Tettamanti, Luigi Antelmi, Simone Vidale, Leonardo Sacco, Maria Merello, Stefano Stefanini, Anna Micheli, Pao
    Annals of Neurology.2016; 80(3): 368.     CrossRef
  • On the Utility of MIBG SPECT/CT in Evaluating Cardiac Sympathetic Dysfunction in Lewy Body Diseases
    Hayato Odagiri, Toru Baba, Yoshiyuki Nishio, Osamu Iizuka, Minoru Matsuda, Kentaro Inoue, Akio Kikuchi, Takafumi Hasegawa, Masashi Aoki, Atsushi Takeda, Yasuyuki Taki, Etsuro Mori, John Duda
    PLOS ONE.2016; 11(4): e0152746.     CrossRef
  • 123I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy and neurocirculatory abnormalities in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease
    Joong-Seok Kim, Hyung-Eun Park, Yoon-Sang Oh, In-Uk Song, Dong-Won Yang, Jeong-Wook Park, Kwang-Soo Lee
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2015; 357(1-2): 173.     CrossRef
  • Orthostatic hypotension: managing a difficult problem
    Pearl K Jones, Brett H Shaw, Satish R Raj
    Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy.2015; 13(11): 1263.     CrossRef
Case Reports
A Case of Intractable Psychogenic Essential Palatal Tremor
Eun Joo Chung, Hyun Jung, Sang Jin Kim
J Mov Disord. 2012;5(2):55-56.
  • 11,586 View
  • 75 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Essential palatal tremor (EPT) is a rare disorder which shows rhythmic involuntary movement of the muscles of soft palate, especially tensor veli palatini muscle. EPT is classified by two subtypes, which is primary and secondary EPT. Secondary EPT includes psychogenic type. We describe a case of intractable psychogenic EPT.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Botulinum toxin treatment for essential palatal tremors presenting with nasal clicks instead of pulsatile tinnitus: a case report
    Yufeng Ye, Shiyu Liao, Baozhen Luo, Liyan Ni
    Head & Face Medicine.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
Levodopa-Induced Facial Dystonia in a Case of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
Eun Joo Chung, Sang Jin Kim
J Mov Disord. 2012;5(1):28-32.
  • 17,043 View
  • 67 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is frequently misdiagnosed as other Parkinsonism because of clinical heterogeneity of PSP. We present here a case of a 67-year-old male patient with frontotemporal dementia-like cognitive impairment including language difficulties and abnormal behaviors. He showed severe facial dystonia after the levodopa treatment. Herein, we describe an unusual case of a patient presenting with PSP which, we believe could contribute to our knowledge about atypical leveodopa-induced facial dystonia in PSP.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Use of botulinum toxin in the management of dystonia in Parkinson’s disease
    Charenya Anandan, Joseph Jankovic
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Lower Cranial Dystonia with Inflated Cheeks: A Case of Dystonic Respiratory Failure
    Takashi Suzuki, Takao Makifuchi, Nobuyoshi Fukuhara
    Internal Medicine.2023; 62(11): 1671.     CrossRef
  • Dystonia in atypical parkinsonian disorders
    Luca Marsili, Matteo Bologna, Maja Kojovic, Alfredo Berardelli, Alberto J. Espay, Carlo Colosimo
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2019; 66: 25.     CrossRef
  • A Review of Treatment Options for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
    Maria Stamelou, Günter Höglinger
    CNS Drugs.2016; 30(7): 629.     CrossRef
Dopa Responsive Slow Orthostatic Tremor in Parkinson’s Disease
Suk Yoon Lee, Eun Joo Chung, Yeo Jung Kim, Sang Jin Kim
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(2):82-84.
  • 15,376 View
  • 86 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Slow orthostatic tremor (OT) occurred to longer and lower frequency regular rhythmic bursts in leg muscle upon standing. The slow OT was often able to clinically confused with orthostatic myoclonus. We described a Parkinson’s disease patient with levodopa responsive slow OT. She showed abnormal movements of more regular rhythms and stable frequency on both legs on standing. These symptoms were aggravated at off state and improved by increasing levodopa.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Orthostatic myoclonus – A retrospective study of Asian patients
    Yi-Cheng Tai, Hung-Chang Kuo, Yihui Wu, Shih-Pin Hsu
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association.2022; 121(7): 1310.     CrossRef
  • Therapeutic Devices for Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease: Current Progress and a Systematic Review of Recent Randomized Controlled Trials
    Joji Fujikawa, Ryoma Morigaki, Nobuaki Yamamoto, Teruo Oda, Hiroshi Nakanishi, Yuishin Izumi, Yasushi Takagi
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Unilateral Pseudo-Orthostatic Tremor Provoked by a Remote Limb Movement in Parkinson’s Disease
    Sang-Won Yoo, Youngje Heo, Joong-Seok Kim, Kwang-Soo Lee
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2020; 13(1): 69.     CrossRef
  • Levodopa-Responsive Primary Slow Orthostatic Tremor: A Premotor Sign of Parkinson’s Disease?
    Fumihito Yoshii, Wakoh Takahashi, Koji Aono
    Case Reports in Neurology.2020; 12(1): 1.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Four Cases with Peripheral Trauma Induced Involuntary Movements
Eun Joo Chung, Sang Jin Kim, Won Yong Lee, Jong Seok Bae, Eung Gyu Kim, Sung Hwa Pang
J Mov Disord. 2010;3(2):39-41.
  • 9,333 View
  • 58 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose

Although peripheral trauma induced movement disorders have been rarely reported, diagnostic criteria for peripherally induced movement disorders (PIMD) have been established. Because preexisting subclinical movement disorders, or secondary gain for compensation and legal purposes are difficult to confirm, differential diagnosis for physicians still remains difficult.

Case Reports

We present four patients developed movement disorders after relatively various intervals after traffic accident. Three patients of them showed tremor and one patient presented propriospinal myoclonus. In this report, we investigate whether peripheral trauma can lead to movement disorders and describe the relationship between peripheral injury and movement disorders in four cases.


Injury was serious enough to develop involuntary abnormal movements with pain and the latency between injury and the onset of movements in all of cases was less than 1 year. Thus, our cases showed temporal and anatomical correlation between injury and the onset of movement disorder, strongly supporting the cause-and-effect relationship by previous diagnostic criteria for peripherally induced movement disorders.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Early onset of propriospinal-like myoclonus in a child following a vertebral fracture
    Carlotta Facini, Marina Barsacchi, Benedetta Piccolo, Emanuela Claudia Turco, Francesco Pisani
    Neurology.2016; 87(9): 956.     CrossRef
  • Propriospinal myoclonus: The spectrum of clinical and neurophysiological phenotypes
    E. Antelmi, F. Provini
    Sleep Medicine Reviews.2014;[Epub]     CrossRef
Usefulness of Diffusion-Weighted MRI for Differentiation between Parkinson’s Disease and Parkinson Variant of Multiple System Atrophy
Eun Joo Chung, Eung Gyu Kim, Jong Seok Bae, Choong Ki Eun, Kwang Sig Lee, Minkyung Oh, Sang Jin Kim
J Mov Disord. 2009;2(2):64-68.
  • 12,148 View
  • 73 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose:

Several studies have reported that diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is able to help discriminate a Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-p) from Parkinson’s disease (PD) on the basis of the increased regional apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC). We analyzed the usefulness of DWI by using the rADC for differential diagnosis between MSA-p and PD and investigated the correlation between the rADC value and clinical features of MSA-p and PD.


Twelve patients with PD and 10 with MSA-p were studied. The rADC value was determined in different brain regions, including the dorsal putamen (DP) and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP).


The rADC values of the DP showed a greater increase in MSA-p patients than in PD patients (p=0.03). MSA-p patients also presented increased rADC values of the MCP compared with PD patients (p=0.0001). In particular, the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of the MCP rADC were higher than those of the DP rADC. However, DP and MCP rADC values were not correlated with clinical features in either MSA or PD patients.


DWI discriminated between PD and MSA-p based on rADC values in DP and MCP. The MCP rADC value, in particular, could better discriminate MSA-p from PD.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Microstructural Abnormalities in Multiple System Atrophy: A Comprehensive Review
    Jacopo Pasquini, Michael J. Firbank, Roberto Ceravolo, Vincenzo Silani, Nicola Pavese
    Movement Disorders.2022; 37(10): 1963.     CrossRef
  • Quantitative MRI markers in Parkinson's disease and parkinsonian syndromes
    Germain Arribarat, Patrice Péran
    Current Opinion in Neurology.2020; 33(2): 222.     CrossRef
  • Unified platform for multimodal voxel-based analysis to evaluate tumour perfusion and diffusion characteristics before and after radiation treatment evaluated in metastatic brain cancer
    Catherine Coolens, Brandon Driscoll, Warren Foltz, Igor Svistoun, Noha Sinno, Caroline Chung
    The British Journal of Radiology.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • “One line”: A method for differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes
    Wataru Sako, Takashi Abe, Shotaro Haji, Nagahisa Murakami, Yusuke Osaki, Yuishin Izumi, Masafumi Harada, Ryuji Kaji
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica.2019; 140(3): 229.     CrossRef
  • Early stages of Parkinson’s disease: aspects of the diagnosis and therapy
    A. A. Pilipovich
    Medical Council.2019; (18): 61.     CrossRef
  • Parkinson’s Disease: Biomarkers, Treatment, and Risk Factors
    Fatemeh N. Emamzadeh, Andrei Surguchov
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Widespread diffusion changes differentiate Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy
    Aron S. Talai, Jan Sedlacik, Kai Boelmans, Nils D. Forkert
    NeuroImage: Clinical.2018; 20: 1037.     CrossRef
  • Magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease
    Beatrice Heim, Florian Krismer, Roberto De Marzi, Klaus Seppi
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2017; 124(8): 915.     CrossRef
  • Diffusion-weighted MRI distinguishes Parkinson disease from the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Sweta Bajaj, Florian Krismer, Jose-Alberto Palma, Gregor K. Wenning, Horacio Kaufmann, Werner Poewe, Klaus Seppi, Jan Kassubek
    PLOS ONE.2017; 12(12): e0189897.     CrossRef
  • Free-water imaging in Parkinson’s disease and atypical parkinsonism
    Peggy J. Planetta, Edward Ofori, Ofer Pasternak, Roxana G. Burciu, Priyank Shukla, Jesse C. DeSimone, Michael S. Okun, Nikolaus R. McFarland, David E. Vaillancourt
    Brain.2016; 139(2): 495.     CrossRef
  • Imaging synucleinopathies
    David J. Brooks, Nicola Tambasco
    Movement Disorders.2016; 31(6): 814.     CrossRef
  • The difference of apparent diffusion coefficient in the middle cerebellar peduncle among parkinsonian syndromes: Evidence from a meta-analysis
    Wataru Sako, Nagahisa Murakami, Yuishin Izumi, Ryuji Kaji
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2016; 363: 90.     CrossRef
  • Imaging-based differential diagnosis between multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease
    Wataru Sako, Takashi Abe, Nagahisa Murakami, Yoshimichi Miyazaki, Yuishin Izumi, Masafumi Harada, Ryuji Kaji
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2016; 368: 104.     CrossRef
  • Brain MR Contribution to the Differential Diagnosis of Parkinsonian Syndromes: An Update
    Giovanni Rizzo, Stefano Zanigni, Roberto De Blasi, Daniela Grasso, Davide Martino, Rodolfo Savica, Giancarlo Logroscino
    Parkinson's Disease.2016; 2016: 1.     CrossRef

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