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JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders

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Letter to the editor
Deep Brain Stimulation in Advanced Parkinson’s Disease: An Uncommon Case of Allergic Encephalitis
Jyun-Yi Chen, Yen-Chung Chen, Shey-Lin Wu
Received November 16, 2023  Accepted April 12, 2024  Published online April 15, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23237    [Accepted]
  • 272 View
  • 6 Download
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Viewpoint
Neurological perspectives should be integrated into the management of tardive dyskinesia – expert opinion and proposed educational initiatives in Asia
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Onanong Phokaewvarangkul, Thien Thien Lim, Pramod Kumar Pal, Hirohisa Watanabe, Jin Whan Cho, Hui-Fang Shang
Received March 17, 2024  Accepted April 11, 2024  Published online April 11, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.24068    [Accepted]
  • 588 View
  • 20 Download
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Original Article
Clinical and structural characteristics of NEU1 variants causing sialidosis type 1
Yingji Li, Yang Liu, Rongfei Wang, Ran Ao, Feng Xiang, Xu Zhang, Xiangqing Wang, Shengyuan Yu
Received July 27, 2023  Accepted April 9, 2024  Published online April 11, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23145    [Accepted]
  • 270 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Sialidosis type 2 has variants that are both catalytically inactive (severe), while sialidosis type 1 has at least one catalytically active (mild) variant. This study aimed to discuss the structural changes associated with these variants in a newly reported family carrying NEU1 variants and explore the clinical characteristics of different combinations of variants in sialidosis type 1.
Methods
First, whole-exome sequencing and detailed clinical examination were performed on the family. Second, structural analysis, including energy, flexibility and polar contacts, was conducted for several NEU1 variants, and a sialidase activity assay was performed. Third, previous NEU1 variants were systematically reviewed, and the clinical characteristics of patients in the severe-mild and mild-mild groups with sialidosis type 1 were analyzed.
Results
We report a novel family with sialidosis type 1 and the compound heterozygous variants S182G and V143E. The newly identified V143E variant was predicted to be a mild variant through structural analysis and was confirmed by sialidase activity assay. The cherry-red spot was more prevalent in the severe-mild group, and ataxia was more common in the mild-mild group. Impaired cognition was found only in the severe-mild group. Moreover, patients with cherry-red spots and abnormal EEGs and VEPs had a relatively early age of onset, whereas patients with myoclonus had a late onset.
Conclusion
Changes in flexibility and local polar contacts may be indicators of the NEU1 pathogenicity. Sialidosis type 1 can be divided into two subgroups according to the variant combinations, and patients with these two subtypes have different clinical characteristics.
Review Article
α-Synuclein: A Promising Biomarker for Parkinson’s Disease and Related Disorders
Taku Hatano, Ayami Okuzumi, Gen Matsumoto, Tsunemi Taiji, Nobutaka Hattori
Received March 22, 2024  Accepted April 9, 2024  Published online April 9, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.24075    [Accepted]
  • 367 View
  • 85 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Mutations in the SNCA gene, which encodes α-synuclein (α-syn), play a key role in the development of genetic Parkinson’s disease (PD). α-Syn is a major component of Lewy bodies in PD and glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients often progress to PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), or MSA, collectively known as α-synucleinopathies. The loss of dopaminergic neurons with Lewy bodies precedes motor dysfunction in these diseases, but the mechanisms of neurodegeneration due to α-syn aggregation are poorly understood. Monitoring α-syn aggregation in vivo could serve as a diagnostic biomarker and help elucidate the pathogenesis, necessitating a simple and accurate detection method. Seed amplification assays (SAAs), such as real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) and protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), are used to detect small amounts of abnormally structured α-syn protofibrils, which are central to aggregation. These methods are promising for the early diagnosis of α-synucleinopathy. Differences in α-syn filament structures between α-synucleinopathies, observed through transmission electron microscopy and cryo-electron microscopy, suggest their role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. SAAs may differentiate between subtypes of α-synucleinopathy and other diseases. Efforts are also being made to identify α-syn from blood using various methods. This review introduces body fluid α-syn biomarkers based on pathogenic α-syn seeds, which are expected to redefine α-synucleinopathy diagnosis and staging, improving clinical research accuracy and facilitating biomarker development.
Letter to the editor
Haloperidol in managing DYT-TOR1A Dystonia: Unveiling a Dramatic Therapeutic Response
Pavankumar Katragadda, Vikram V Holla, Nitish Kamble, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal
Received February 3, 2024  Accepted April 5, 2024  Published online April 9, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.24029    [Accepted]
  • 134 View
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Brief communication
Evaluating the validity and reliability of the Korean version of Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease–Cognition
Jinse Park, Eung Seok Oh, Seong-Beom Koh, In-Uk Song, Tae-Beom Ahn, Sang Jin Kim, Sang-Myung Cheon, Yun Joong Kim, Jin Whan Cho, Hyeo-Il Ma, Mee-Young Park, Jong Sam Baik, Phil Hyu Lee, Sun Ju Chung, Jong-Min Kim, Han-Joon Kim, Young-Hee Sung, Do Young Kwon, Jae-Hyeok Lee, Jee-Young Lee, Ji Sun Kim, Ji Young Yun, Hee Jin Kim, Jin Young Hong, Mi-Jung Kim, Jinyoung Youn, Ji Seon Kim, Hui-Jun Yang, Won Tae Yoon, Sooyeoun You, Kyum-Yil Kwon, Su-Yun Lee, Younsoo Kim, Hee-Tae Kim, Joong-Seok Kim, Ji-Young Kim
Received March 8, 2024  Accepted April 2, 2024  Published online April 3, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.24061    [Accepted]
  • 313 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
The Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease–Cognition (SCOPA-Cog) was developed to screen for cognition in PD. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the SCOPA-cog.
Methods
We recruited 129 PD patients from 31 clinics with movement disorders in South Korea. The original version of the SCOPA-cognition was translated into Korean using the translation-retranslation method. The test-rest method with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient were used to assess reliability. The Spearman’s Rank correlation analysis with Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Korean version (MOCA-K) and Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) were used to assess concurrent validity.
Results
The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.797, and the ICC was 0.887. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis showed a significant correlation with the K-MMSE and MOCA-K scores (r = 0.546 and r = 0.683, respectively).
Conclusions
Our results demonstrate that K-SCOPA-Cog exhibits good reliability and validity.
Letters to the editor
Comments on 'Absence of Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation in Patients With Parkinson's Disease Complicated by Sigmoid Volvulus'
Sabri Selcuk Atamanalp, Refik Selim Atamanalp
Received March 27, 2024  Accepted March 29, 2024  Published online March 29, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.24078    [Accepted]
  • 136 View
  • 19 Download
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Knowledge, attitude and perception of genetic testing in patients with movement disorders, their caregivers and health care professionals
Sneha Kamath, Vikram V Holla, Nitish Kamble, Rohan R Mahale, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal
Received February 10, 2024  Accepted March 27, 2024  Published online March 27, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.24034    [Accepted]
  • 172 View
  • 10 Download
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Joubert Syndrome Presenting with Levodopa Responsive Parkinsonism
Jin Hwangbo, Ki-Seok Park, Hyun Sung Kim, Jae-Hwan Choi, Jae-Hyeok Lee
Received December 29, 2023  Accepted March 27, 2024  Published online March 27, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23275    [Accepted]
  • 184 View
  • 9 Download
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Therapeutic Strategy for Improving Motor Complications of Parkinson’s Disease: Short-term Levodopa–carbidopa Intestinal Gel Therapy using a Nasogastric Tube
TAGUCHI Soutarou, NAKURA Takahiro, DOYU Manabu, SAIKI Hidemoto
Received February 8, 2024  Accepted March 20, 2024  Published online March 21, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.24033    [Accepted]
  • 175 View
  • 21 Download
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Brief communication
COVID-19 vaccine related movement disorders: a systematic review
Grace Elysse D. Angeles, Lowrence Precious C. Dichoso, Roland Dominic G. Jamora
Received January 2, 2024  Accepted March 18, 2024  Published online March 19, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.24001    [Accepted]
  • 359 View
  • 27 Download
  • 1 Comments
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Since the release of vaccines against COVID-19, there have been reports of vaccine-related neurologic complications. This study aimed to create a descriptive systematic review of movement disorders associated with COVID-19 vaccines.
Methods
We described the demographics, clinical presentation, management, outcomes, and proposed patho-mechanism. A systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. A standardized tool was used to assess the quality of the cases.
Results
We have identified 8 articles that met our inclusion criteria consisting of 10 patients who developed movement disorders after vaccination. The majority were males (n = 8), with a median age of 64.5 years. The most common movement disorder was hemichorea. The rest presented with generalized chorea with myoclonus, cervical dystonia, and akathisia. Most cases responded with immunotherapy. The standardized tool used showed that most studies have a low risk of bias.
Conclusion
The reported incidence of vaccine-related movement disorders was low in occurrence based on available published cases that were found.
Original Article
Trends in Physiotherapy Interventions and Medical Costs for Parkinson’s Disease in South Korea, 2011–2020
Dong-Woo Ryu, Jinse Park, Myung Jun Lee, Dallah Yoo, Sang-Myung Cheon
Received December 22, 2023  Accepted March 18, 2024  Published online March 19, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23269    [Accepted]
  • 189 View
  • 12 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Physiotherapy (PT), an effective strategy for managing Parkinson’s disease (PD), can influence healthcare utilization. We analyzed trends in healthcare utilization, PT interventions, and medical costs among patients with PD.
Methods
Using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2011 to 2020, we analyzed the number of patients with PD and their healthcare utilization and assessed the odds ratio (OR) for receiving regular PTs.
Results
Over 10 years, 169,613 patients with PD were present. The number of patients with PD increased annually from 49,417 in 2011 to 91,841 in 2020. Patients with PD receiving PT increased from 4,847 (9.81%) in 2011 to 13,163 (14.33%) in 2020, and PT prescriptions increased from 81,220 in 2011 to 377,651 in 2019. Medical costs per patient with PD have increased from 1,686 United States Dollars (USD) in 2011 to 3,201 USD in 2020. Medical expenses for each patient with PD receiving PT increased from 6,581 USD in 2011 to 13,476 USD in 2020. Moreover, Regular PTs were administered to 31,782 patients (18.74%) and conducted only through hospitalization. Those in their 50s with disabilities demonstrated a high OR for regular PTs, while those aged 80 years or older and residing outside Seoul had a low OR.
Conclusions
The PD burden increased in South Korea between 2011 and 2020, including an increase in healthcare utilization and medical costs. The significant rise in medical expenses can be associated with increased PD prevalence and PT interventions. Regular PT applications remain restricted and have barriers to access.
Letter to the editor
Impact of deep brain stimulation on non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease
Tanaya Mishra, Nitish Kamble, Amitabh Bhattacharya, Ravi Yadav, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Pramod Kumar Pal
Received November 25, 2023  Accepted March 13, 2024  Published online March 13, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23247    [Accepted]
  • 448 View
  • 27 Download
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Viewpoint
A practical guide for clinical approach to patients with Huntington’s disease in Korea
Chaewon Shin, Ryul Kim, Dallah Yoo, Eungseok Oh, Jangsup Moon, Minkyeong Kim, Jee-Young Lee, Jong-Min Kim, Seong-Beom Koh, Manho Kim, Beomseok Jeon
Received February 19, 2024  Accepted March 12, 2024  Published online March 12, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.24040    [Accepted]
  • 497 View
  • 42 Download
  • 2 Comments
PDF
Original Article
Fasting plasma glucose level and longitudinal motor and cognitive outcomes in Parkinson’s disease
Ko-Eun Choi, Dong-Woo Ryu, Yoon-Sang Oh, Joong-Seok Kim
Received December 14, 2023  Accepted March 6, 2024  Published online March 6, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.23264    [Accepted]
  • 326 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus have been recognized as poor prognostic factors for motor and nonmotor outcomes in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), although there is some controversy. In the present study, we investigated the effects of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level on longitudinal motor and cognitive outcomes in PD patients.
Methods
We included a total of 201 patients diagnosed with PD between January 2015 and January 2020. The patients were categorized based on FPG level: euglycemia (70< FPG <100 mg/dL), intermediate glycemia (100≤ FPG <126 mg/dL), and hyperglycemia (FPG ≥126 mg/dL), and longitudinal FPG trajectories were analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling. Survival analysis was conducted to determine the time until motor outcome (Hoehn and Yahr stage≥2) and the conversion from normal cognition to mild cognitive impairment.
Results
Among the patients studied, 82 had euglycemia, 93 had intermediate glycemia, and 26 had hyperglycemia. Intermediate glycemia (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.08-2.81, p=0.022) and hyperglycemia (HR 3.86, 95% CI 2.00-7.48, p<0.01) emerged as significant predictors of worsening motor symptoms. However, neither intermediate glycemia (HR 1.245, 95% CI 0.764-2.029, p=0.3789) nor hyperglycemia (HR 1.602, 95% CI 0.763-3.362, p=0.2129) demonstrated associations with longitudinal progression of cognitive impairment. Diabetes mellitus defined by self-reported medical history was not related to poor motor or cognitive impairment outcomes.
Conclusions
Our results support that both impaired glucose tolerance and hyperglycemia could be associated with motor progression in PD.

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders