Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders


Previous issues

Page Path
HOME > Browse Articles > Previous issues
12 Previous issues
Article category
Volume 1(2); October 2008
Prev issue Next issue
Original Articles
Gait Analysis in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease: Relationship to Clinical Features and Freezing
Seong-Beom Koh, Kun-Woo Park, Dae-Hie Lee, Se Ju Kim, Joon-Shik Yoon
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(2):59-64.
  • 17,696 View
  • 440 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

The purpose of our study was to investigate gait dynamics and kinematics in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to correlate these features with the predominant clinical features and with the presence of the freezing of gait (FOG). We measured the temporospatial and kinematic parameters of gait in 30 patients with PD (M:F=12:18, age=68.43±7.54) using a computerized video motion analysis system.


We divided the subjects into subgroups: (1) tremor-dominant (TD) group and postural instability and gait disturbance (PIGD) group and (2) FOG group and non-FOG group. We compared the gait parameters between the subgroups.


The walking velocity and stride length were reduced significantly in the PIGD group compared to the TD group. The PIGD group showed a significantly reduced range of motion in the pelvic and lower extremity joints by kinematics. Stride time variability was significantly increased and the pelvic oblique range was significantly reduced in the freezing gait disorder group.


Our findings suggest that there are differences in the perturbation of the basal ganglia-cortical circuits based on major clinical features. The reduction of the pelvic oblique range of motion may be a compensatory mechanism for postural instability and contributes to stride time variability in patients with FOG.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A machine learning model for prediction of sarcopenia in patients with Parkinson’s Disease
    Minkyeong Kim, Doeon Kim, Heeyoung Kang, Seongjin Park, Shinjune Kim, Jun-Il Yoo, Kyung-Wan Baek
    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(1): e0296282.     CrossRef
  • Machine learning approach for predicting state transitions via shank acceleration data during freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease
    Ashima Khosla, Neelesh Kumar, Preeti Khera
    Biomedical Signal Processing and Control.2024; 92: 106053.     CrossRef
  • The gait parameters in patients with Parkinson’s Disease under STN-DBS therapy and associated clinical features
    Halil Onder, Ege Dinc, Kubra Yucesan, Selcuk Comoglu
    Neurological Research.2023; 45(8): 779.     CrossRef
  • Proof of Concept in Artificial-Intelligence-Based Wearable Gait Monitoring for Parkinson’s Disease Management Optimization
    Robert Radu Ileșan, Claudia-Georgiana Cordoș, Laura-Ioana Mihăilă, Radu Fleșar, Ana-Sorina Popescu, Lăcrămioara Perju-Dumbravă, Paul Faragó
    Biosensors.2022; 12(4): 189.     CrossRef
  • Towards Real-Time Prediction of Freezing of Gait in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease: A Novel Deep One-Class Classifier
    Nader Naghavi, Eric Wade
    IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics.2022; 26(4): 1726.     CrossRef
  • Development of Neuro-Degenerative Diseases’ Gait Classification Algorithm Using Convolutional Neural Network and Wavelet Coherence Spectrogram of Gait Synchronization
    Febryan Setiawan, An-Bang Liu, Che-Wei Lin
    IEEE Access.2022; 10: 38137.     CrossRef
  • Functional gait assessment in early and advanced Parkinson’s disease
    Hany Mohamed Eldeeb, Heba Samir Abdelraheem
    The Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Statistical methods for analysis of Parkinson’s disease gait pattern and classification
    Anup Nandy
    Multimedia Tools and Applications.2019; 78(14): 19697.     CrossRef
  • Prediction of Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease Using Statistical Inference and Lower–Limb Acceleration Data
    Nader Naghavi, Eric Wade
    IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering.2019; 27(5): 947.     CrossRef
  • Towards Real-Time Prediction of Freezing of Gait in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease: Addressing the Class Imbalance Problem
    Nader Naghavi, Aaron Miller, Eric Wade
    Sensors.2019; 19(18): 3898.     CrossRef
  • Computer-Vision Based Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease via Gait: A Survey
    Navleen Kour, Sunanda, Sakshi Arora
    IEEE Access.2019; 7: 156620.     CrossRef
  • A comparison of soft computing models for Parkinson’s disease diagnosis using voice and gait features
    Rekh Ram Janghel, Anupam Shukla, Chandra Prakash Rathore, Kshitiz Verma, Swati Rathore
    Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
The Correlation of ON and OFF Status With Clinical Characteristics in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease
Jung-Hwa Seo, Sang-Myung Cheon, Jae Woo Kim
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(2):65-70.
  • 9,153 View
  • 120 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Status of the disease is the one of main concerns of clinicians, especially in the course of primary degenerative disorders. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is an useful clinical score that can express severity of parkinsonian symptoms, but L-DOPA treatment and motor fluctuations can change the UPDRS scores. Even in the best ‘on’ state, there can be residual motor deficits, and it is very difficult to estimate the worst ‘off’ state due to long duration effect of L-DOPA.


To find relevant examination scores of ‘on’ or ‘off’ state of PD patients which correlates with clinical and demographic variables those can represents the status of Parkinson’s disease.


Sixty-four patients with PD (24 male, age 63.0±8.6 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage (HY) 2.8±0.5) were examined UPDRS at ‘on’ and practically defined ‘off’ (12 hours after last medication) state. We evaluated the association between the ‘on’ and ‘off’ scores of UPDRS and duration of disease and treatment, and equivalent L-DOPA dose of the patients. Patients were grouped according to the presence of motor fluctuation to find the differences in those associations.


There were significantly strong correlations between UPDRS ‘off’ scores and clinical variables such as duration of disease and treatment. In ‘on’ state, only complication part of UPDRS was correlated with duration of disease and treatment, but activity of daily living (ADL) and motor part of UPDRS were correlated well with age of the patients. Age at disease onset showed significant negative association with the difference between ‘off’ and ‘on’ state UPDRS scores. Thirty-one patients who had motor fluctuation (9 male, age 62.7±9.3 years, HY 3.0±0.6) showed significantly increased duration of the disease, duration of L-DOPA treatment and equivalent DOPA dose compared to those of 33 patients without motor fluctuation (15 male, age 63.3±8.1 years, HY 2.6±0.3). In patients without motor fluctuation, both ‘off’ and ‘on’ UPDRS showed association with duration of disease and treatment, but ‘off’ and ‘off’ – ‘on’ difference of UPDRS were better correlated with duration of disease and treatment in patients with motor fluctuation.


We found that the UPDRS scores of practically defined ‘off’ state significantly correlated with the duration of the disease and treatment. Patients with motor fluctuation revealed better responsiveness to medication than those without motor fluctuation. In patients without motor fluctuation, UPDRS scores of ‘on’ state can reflect the clinical presentation as much as those of ‘off’ state.

The Relationship Between Plasma Homocysteine Level and C677T MTHFR Genotype in Drug-Naive Patients With Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease
Il Hyung Lee, Hyun Sook Kim, Ok Joon Kim, Won Chan Kim, Myung Sik Lee
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(2):71-74.
  • 8,948 View
  • 58 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

The cause of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) is unknown, but reduced activity of complex I of the electron-transport chain has been implicated in the pathogenesis of IPD. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, recent evidence suggests that changes in the metabolic fate of homocysteine, leading to hyperhomocysteinemia, may also play a role in the pathophysiology of IPD.


Age and sex-matched 41 drug-naive IPD patients (16 men and 25 women) and 161 healthy controls (66 men and 95 women) were included in this study. Their fasting plasma homocystein and folate level, and the genotypes of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) were analyzed.


The plasma level of homocysteine was higher in untreated IPD patients (12.0±2.9 μmol/L) compared to the controls (9.0±2.6 μmol/L) (p =0.001). The frequencies of MTHFR C677T genotypes were not different between patients (CC:CT:TT=7:23:11) and controls (CC:CT:TT=27:86:48) (p =0.930). The adjusted odds ratio of homocysteine was remarkable (adjusted OR=1.149, 95% confidential interval=1.66–2.28, p =0.004).


IPD patients have higher plasma homocysteine level than healthy controls but MTHFR C667T genotype was not related to the homocysteine level. It can be suggested that increased plasma homocysteine level may contribute to the pathogenesis of IPD.

Reliability of Serum Anti-thyroid Antibody Screening in the Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease and Multiple System Atrophy
Taek-Jun Lee, Hee-Young Shin, Won Tae Yoon, Won Yong Lee
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(2):75-81.
  • 34,294 View
  • 190 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Ataxia associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis autoantibodies has been reported as acquired cerebellar ataxia. However, relationship between anti-thyroid antibodies and cerebellar ataxia has not been clarified yet.


We aimed to analysis the relibility of serum anti-thyroid antibodies screening in the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA).


We enrolled 105 patients with clinically diagnosed PD and 75 patients with probable MSA. Patients with PD were classified into 70 patients with early PD (Hoehn & Yahr stage I to II) and 35 patients with late PD (Hoehn & Yahr stage III to IV). In MSA, 28 patients were classified as MSA-p (parkinsonism predominant) and 47 MSA-c (cerebellar predominant). For analysis of thyroid function, serum free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), anti-thyroglobuline (TG) antibodies and anti-microsomal antibodies were measured. Cut-off level for abnormal titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were defiend as above 100 U/ml.


Abnormally high titer of serum anti-TG antibodies and anti-microsomal antibodies was more frequently observed in MSA than in PD (p =0.001 and 0.003, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in the frequency of abnormal titer either between MSA-c and MSA-p (p>0.05) nor between early PD and late PD (p>0.05). Among clinical parameters, only ataxia was correlated with both titer of anti-TG antibody and anti-microsomal antibody (p=0.007 and 0.002, respectively).


These results suggest that high titer of anti-thyroid antibodies may be associated with MSA rather than PD and screening of serum anti-thyroid antibodies may be helpful for discrimiation of PD from MSA. However, anti-thyroid antibodies screening may not be helpful to differentiate MSA-c from MSA-p.

Case Reports
Chorea as an Initial Manifestation of Polycythemia Vera
Ji Eun Lee, Hae-Won Shin, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(2):82-85.
  • 10,843 View
  • 125 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Chorea is a rare complication of polycythemia vera (PV). We report a 58-year-old woman with acute onset chorea without structural lesion in the basal ganglia. The physical and laboratory findings were compatible with the diagnosis of PV. After repeated phlebotomies her chorea was improved. PV should be considered as one of the possible etiologies of chorea, as early diagnosis is important to lead to the effective treatment and prevention of complications.

A Case of Chorea as the Initial Manifestation of SLE Triggered by Estrogen
Su-Hyun Kim, Dong-Jin Shin, Hyeon-Mi Park, Yeong-Bae Lee, Kee-Hyung Park, Young-Hee Sung
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(2):86-89.
  • 9,310 View
  • 47 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Neurological complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are relatively common, but chorea as the initial manifestation of SLE unmasked by exogenous estrogen is very rare. A-46-year old right handed woman presented with generalized chorea since 2 weeks ago. Her medical records revealed that the chorea had appeared within one month after estrogen medication. The laboratory test revealed positive antinuclear antibody (ANA), positive anti-dsDNA and positive anti-histone antibody. After discontinuation of estrogen, her choreic movement was not diminished. We report a case of newly diagnosed SLE attribute to chorea which triggered by estrogen.

A Case of Genetically Confirmed Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 8
Gyoungim Suh, Won Chan Kim, Myung Sik Lee
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(2):90-92.
  • 46,426 View
  • 86 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 patients typically have a slowly progressive, adult-onset ataxia. SCA8 is characterized by relatively pure cerebellar ataxia, which is caused by the expansion of combined CTA/CTG repeats on chromosome 13q21. We report a 58 years old woman with slowly progressive dysarthria, and gait ataxia. We performed genetic studies for SCA 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 17 and detected CTA/CTG repeat expansion in the SCA8 gene.

A Case of Familial Cortical Myoclonic Tremor With Epilepsy
Kang-Ho Choi, Tai-Seung Nam, Seong-Min Choi
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(2):93-96.
  • 11,685 View
  • 70 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy (FCMTE) is a rare disorder characterized by irregular postural tremor of the limbs, family history of seizures, autosomal dominant inheritance, and a rather benign course. A 23 year-old man who had a history of seizure attack since age 16 showed postural and kinetic tremor and mental retardation (MR). His older sister as well as his mother had similar clinical feature. We report the first case of FCMTE in Korea.

Compulsive Shopping in Parkinson’s Disease - A Case Report
Hyun Cho, Ji-hyun Kwan, Hyun-jin Seo
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(2):97-100.
  • 23,614 View
  • 126 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are at risk of a number of compulsive behaviors associated with dopaminergic drugs. We report one case of unusual compulsive shopping in idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) in relation to dopaminergic therapy. The mechanism explaining the behavior in this case is likely related to increased dopaminergic stimulation of non-motor basal ganglia loops. It suggests that perhaps many dopaminergic medications can be associated with compulsive behaviors.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Kompulsif Satın Alma Davranışının Y ve Z Kuşaklarında Cinsiyetler Arası Analizi
    Asena Gizem YİĞİT, Mehmet YİĞİT
    OPUS Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi.2020; 16(28): 1.     CrossRef
Dopaminergic Medication-Related Repetitive Behaviors in Parkinson’s Disease
Jong Sam Baik, Sang Won Han, Jeong Yeon Kim, Jae Hyeon Park
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(2):101-103.
  • 16,126 View
  • 140 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

A set of impulse control and repetitive behaviors presumed to be related to dopaminergic medications has been recognized in Parkinson’s disease (PD). A 68-year-old man presented with compulsive gathering of new towels for 8 months after increasing his medication dosage. After we reduced a dose of Sinemet® and ropinirole as before, and added amantadine, his repetitive behavior was gone and dyskinesia was improved.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Case of Dopamine Dysregulation Syndrome and Repetitive Behavior Caused by Levodopa in Parkinson's Disease
    So Young Huh, Min Jeong Kim
    Journal of the Korean Geriatrics Society.2010; 14(3): 171.     CrossRef
Involuntary Scapular Movements as a Possible Manifestation of Radicular Myoclonus
Bosuk Park, Sook Keun Song, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(2):104-106.
  • 8,387 View
  • 44 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Radicular myoclonus (RM) is a kind of peripheral myoclonus exclusively related with traumatic spinal root lesion. Here we describe a case with involuntary scapular movements as a possible manifestation of RM. A 37-year-old woman without any underlying disease developedinvoluntary movements of left shoulder two days after cervical trauma. On needle electromyographic recordings, the myoclonic jerky movements were found in left serratus anterior and rhomboid major muscles, and the duration of bursts ranged from 100 to 300 ms with the irregular frequency of 1–2 Hz. Electromyography studies showed accompanying left C5 radiculopathy. Treatment with clonazepm markedly improved involuntary scapular movements.

Cruciform Pontine MRI Hyperintensities (“Hot Cross Bun” Sign) in Non-Multiple System Atrophy Patients
Seong-Beom Koh, Kun-Woo Park, Dae-Hie Lee
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(2):107-108.
  • 10,207 View
  • 62 Download
  • 1 Crossref


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The “Hot Cross Bun Sign” in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Types 2 and 7–Case Reports and Review of Literature
    Ansuya Kasavelu Naidoo, Cait‐Lynn Deanne Wells, Yashvir Rugbeer, Neil Naidoo
    Movement Disorders Clinical Practice.2022; 9(8): 1105.     CrossRef

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders Twitter