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Volume 1(1); April 2008
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Review Articles
Microglial Imaging in Movement Disorders With PK11195 PET
Seong-Beom Koh
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(1):1-5.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.08001
  • 8,679 View
  • 127 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Activated microglia play a major role in the pathogenesis in neurological disorders. The transition of microglia from the normal resting state to the activated state is associated with an increased expression of receptors known as peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites, which are abundant on cells of mononuclear phagocyte lineage. PK11195 is a ligand which binds selectively to peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites, a type of receptor selectively expressed by activated microglia in the central nervous system. The 11C-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography (PET) is already applied to many kinds of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative disorders, and can demonstrate the role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. And this imaging modality also provides a means to monitor potential clinical relevance of antiinflammatory treatment strategies in vivo. This article reviews some of the clinical applications of 11C-(R)-PK11195 PET in the field of movement disorders.

Transcranial Sonography in Parkinson’s Disease and Parkinsonism
Won Yong Lee, Ji Youn Kim, Seong Tae Kim
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(1):6-12.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.08002
  • 10,421 View
  • 318 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Transcranial sonography (TCS) is potentially useful for the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is attractive because it is non-invasive, easily accessible and low risk test. So far, up to twenties of TCS studies in Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism have been reported. However, studies on TCS have been restricted to European populations and no such study has been performed in Asian especially Korean population. To investigate the efficacy of TCS in Korean PD patients and its correlation with the clinical features, we carried out midbrain TCS in PD patients and normal controls, and evaluated the area of the substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity and its ratio to the area of the whole m idbrain. According to our study, we could conclude that midbrain TCS is an effective diagnostic tool for detecting PD in the Korean population. In this review, we additionally summarized clinical application of TCS in differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonism as well as restless leg syndrome and depression. Journal of Movement Disorders 1(1):6-12, 2008

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Validity and sensitivity of instrumented postural and gait assessment using low-cost devices in Parkinson’s disease
    Ignacio Álvarez, Jorge Latorre, Miquel Aguilar, Pau Pastor, Roberto Llorens
    Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
Falls and Physical Injuries in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease
Tae-Jin Song, Do Hyun Kim, Kwon-Duk Seo, Seung-Hun Oh, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Myung Sik Lee
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(1):13-18.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.08003
  • 10,492 View
  • 161 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background:

In Parkinson’s disease (PD), falls and subsequent physical injuries are frequent causes of morbidity and mortality. We investigated the characteristics of falls and physical injuries in Korean patients with PD.

Methods:

This study included 239 patients with PD. Using the medical records and interviews, we studied the characteristics of fall and its consequences retrospectively.

Results:

Among the 239 patients with PD, 129 (54.0%) patients had a history of fall. The mean interval between the disease onset and the first fall was 15.3 months. Among them, 83 patients (64.3%) fell more than twice. Eighty-six patients (66.7%) had physical injuries and 21 patients (15.3%) had fractures including 7 with hip fracture and 7 with arm fracture. Patients with physical injuries fell earlier and repetitively. They tended to fall during the night, toward lateral or posterior direction, and were unable to make protective hand movements.

Conclusions:

Elderly PD patients with long duration have a high risk of fall. To prevent the physical injuries, the clinicians should try to reduce the off time and advice the patients and caregivers to limit physical activities during the night.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A retrospective study on the management of osteoporosis in Parkinson's disease – A single institution, preliminary study
    Kwang-Kyoun Kim, Tae-Kyun Kim, Yougun Won, Won-Sub Sung
    Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia.2015; 1(1): 59.     CrossRef
Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease
Jae Woo Kim, Hee Young Jo, Min Jeong Park, Sang-Myung Cheon
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(1):19-25.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.08004
  • 8,162 View
  • 88 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background

To determine the frequency of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of Parkinson’s disease (PD, PDMCI) and its subtypes among non-demented PD patients, and to identify the influence of the age and presenting symptom on the development of PDMCI.

Methods:

A total 141 non-demented PD patients underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment including attention, language, visuospatial, memory and frontal functions. PDMCI was defined by neuropsychological testing and was classified into five subtypes. Patients were divided into two groups (tremor vs. akinetic-rigid type) for presenting symptom and three groups according to the age. Neuropsychological performance of patients was compared with normative data.

Results:

Almost half (49.6%) of non-demented PD patients had impairment in at least one domain and can be considered as having PDMCI. Executive type of PDMCI was the most frequent and amnestic, visuospatial, linguistic and attention types followed in the order of frequency. The population of PDMCI was increasing as the age of disease onset was higher. Whereas the frequency of executive and amnestic types of PDMCI was comparable in younger group, executive type was the most frequent in older group. The patients with tremor dominant type performed worse on tests, particularly on attention test.

Conclusions:

MCI was common even in the early stage of PD and the subtype was diverse. Unlike MCI developing Alzheimer’s disease later, executive type of PDMCI was the most common. Age was an important risk factor for development of MCI in PD. The concept of MCI should be introduced in PD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Orthostatic Hypotension and Cognitive Impairment in <i>De Novo</i> Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
    Hyo-Jin Bae, Jun-Ho Lim, Sang-Myung Cheon
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2014; 7(2): 102.     CrossRef
  • Correlated regions of cerebral blood flow with clinical parameters in Parkinson’s disease; comparison using ‘Anatomy’ and ‘Talairach Daemon’ software
    Hyun Jin Yoon, Sang Myung Cheon, Young Jin Jeong, Do-Young Kang
    Annals of Nuclear Medicine.2012; 26(2): 164.     CrossRef
  • Correlation between neuropsychological tests and hypoperfusion in MCI patients: anatomical labeling using xjView and Talairach Daemon Software
    Hyun Jin Yoon, Kyung Won Park, Young Jin Jeong, Do-Young Kang
    Annals of Nuclear Medicine.2012; 26(8): 656.     CrossRef
  • Significant correlation between cerebral hypoperfusion and neuropsychological assessment scores of patients with mild cognitive impairment
    Hyun Jin Yoon, Kyung Won Park, Young Jin Jeong, Do-Young Kang
    Nuclear Medicine Communications.2012; 33(8): 848.     CrossRef
  • Utility and Limitations of Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised for Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease
    Natalie C. Komadina, Zoe Terpening, Yue Huang, Glenda M. Halliday, Sharon L. Naismith, Simon J.G. Lewis
    Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders.2011; 31(5): 349.     CrossRef
  • Characterizing mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease
    John C. Dalrymple-Alford, Leslie Livingston, Michael R. MacAskill, Charlotte Graham, Tracy R. Melzer, Richard J. Porter, Richard Watts, Tim J. Anderson
    Movement Disorders.2011; 26(4): 629.     CrossRef
Relationship Between the Striatal and Cerebellar Glucose Metabolism and the Response to Levodopa Treatment in Patients With Multiple System Atrophy
Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Seung Hun Oh, Ki Ook Lee, Seung Yeob Lee, Young Hoon Ryu, Myung Sik Lee
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(1):26-32.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.08005
  • 9,544 View
  • 53 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Introduction:

About two thirds of the patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) do not respond to levodopa treatment. Postmortem pathological studies and one retrospective [18F]-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDGPET) study attributed such poor response to the striatal degeneration. We prospectively investigated the relationship between levodopa responsiveness and the metabolic activities of the striatum and cerebellum in MSA patients.

Methods:

In 39 patients with MSA, the UPDRS motor score was assessed and two sets of timed motor tests were perform ed before and after the levodopa treatment. After quantitative FDG PET and baseline evaluation, treatment w as started with 3 tablets of Sinemet® 25/250 mg a day. Clinical assessments were performed monthly for three months. Metabolic activities of the caudate, anterior putamen, posterior putamen, cerebellar cortex and cerebellar vermis were measured. We compared the measurements with mean percentage changes of motor function. Also, using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis, we tried to find brain areas in which metabolism correlated with the clinical changes.

Results:

Mean percentage improvements of UPDRS motor scores w ere correlated with glucose metabolism in the posterior putamen and cerebellar vermis. The mean percentage improvements of performance in Purdue peg board test correlated with the glucose metabolism in the cerebellar cortex and vermis. In SPM analysis, cerebellar glucose metabolism correlated with the improvement of UPDRS motor score and the performance of two timed motor tests.

Conclusion:

The integrity of cerebellum, as well as posterior putamen, may be an important factor for showing the response to levodopa.

The Role of Telephone Counseling in Management of Parkinson’s Disease Patients
Mi Sun Kim, Sun Ju Chung, Sung Reul Kim, Tai Yeon Lee, Myoung Chong Lee
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(1):33-37.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.08006
  • 18,261 View
  • 69 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background:

Various nonpharmacologic managements are important fundamental elements in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We aimed to investigate the role of telephone counseling in managing PD patients.

Methods:

From November 2006 to January 2007, we studied 243 PD patients at outpatient clinic of Asan Medical Center. Detailed telephone counseling was provided using a list structured questionnaires.

Results:

There were 73 men and 170 women with an age range of 17 to 85 years (mean age, 64.9 years). Mean age at onset was 59.5 years (range, 14–82 years) and mean disease duration was 5.6 years (range, 0.3–25 years). The contents of telephone counseling included adverse effects of anti-Parkinsonian medications (24.4%), aggravation of motor symptoms (18.7%), problems due to comorbidities (17.8%), how to take medicine (13.6%), activities of daily living (diet, bowel, sleeping and safety) (12.6%), complementary or alternative medicines (3.9%) and knowledge about PD (3.0%). Persons who responded to use the telephone counseling included patients (37.9%), offspring (36.2%), spouses (17.7%) and other relatives (7.4%). Persons who received the telephone counseling were determined by level of education, sex, cohabitation and Hoehn-Yahr stage. Contents of telephone counseling varied significantly with Hoehn-Yahr stage and persons who used the telephone counseling.

Conclusions:

Our results suggest that support system with telephone counseling may provide beneficial therapeutic intervention in PD patients, especially for those with advanced PD. The most cost-effective method for telephone support needs to be studied.

The Characteristics of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease and Recognition of Cognitive Symptom by Questionnaire
Hee Young Shin, Won Yong Lee, Kun-Woo Park
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(1):38-46.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.08007
  • 7,358 View
  • 266 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective:

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms including cognitive, autonomic, sleep, and sensory disturbances. Cognitive impairment may occur in up to 80% of PD patients, and dementia in approximately 30%. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the frequency of cognitive impairment and the characteristics of cognitive deficits and to know the possibility of early detection of cognitive deficits in outpatient clinics with the questionnaire for patients and caregivers.

Methods:

A total of 129 consecutive patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease were visited movement clinic from March 2006 to August 2006. Eighty-five patients performed cognitive test and questionnaires. All patients had motor symptoms with Hoehn and Yahr stage 0.5 to 3 (mean: 1.98±0.617), and evaluated with cognition by K-MMSE (Korean version of Mini-mental status examination), 7-MS (7-minutes screen test), and demographic features.

Results:

The frequency of cognitive impairment in PD patients was 44.7% (38/85), among them thirty (78.9%) patients complained memory disturbance. The characteristics of cognitive test were retrieval defect in memory, visuospatial dysfunction and categorical word fluency. With questionnaire, the complaint of memory decline and difficulties in activity of daily living (ADL) w ere important points of cognitive deficit in PD patients. However questionnaire did not showed significant correlation between complain of memory decline and cognitive deficit, only regular check with cognitive function test revealed the patient’s early cognitive impairment.

Conclusions:

The cognitive impairment was frequent in PD patients. The characteristics of cognitive testing w ere retrieval defect in memory function and frontal executive dysfunction.

Case Reports
Hemidystonia Associated With Focal Status Epilepticus as Incipient Manifestations in Probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Dong-Geun Lee, In-Uk Song, Kwang-Soo Lee, Joong-Seok Kim
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(1):47-50.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.08008
  • 11,398 View
  • 97 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

We report a 70-year-old man who manifested with hemidystonia associated with focal status epilepticus. The subsequent clinical symptoms and signs including rapid progressive dementia, and generalized myoclonus and the presence of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid, typical magnetic resonance imaging and eletroencephalography findings provide the evidences for diagnosis of probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Movement disorders or epilepsy rarely occur in the early stage of CJD. Furthermore, co-occurrence of both disorders in the early stage has been hardly reported. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report in Korea of CJD presenting as dystonia. Our case suggests that CJD can present with a variety of movement disorders.

Painful Spasms and Rigidity of the Lower Limb Following Transverse Myelitis Associated With Sjögren’s Syndrome
In-Uk Song, Young-Do Kim, Joong-Seok Kim, Kwang-Soo Lee
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(1):51-54.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.08009
  • 11,145 View
  • 122 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Abnormal muscle tone, such as spasm s, rigidity, and stiffness, following acute transverse myelitis (ATM) was such a rare manifestation that hardly reported until now. We experienced a 50-year-old patient with ATM associated with Sjögren’s syndrome. Furthermore, the patients complained painful spasms and rigidity of left lower limb which begun after episode of ATM.

Jaw Dystonia Induced by Speaking
Jong-Sam Baik, Jae-Hyeon Park, Jeong-Yeon Kim, Sang-Won Han
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(1):55-57.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.08010
  • 13,224 View
  • 73 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

We describe a 43-year-old housewife who presented with dysarthria suddenly because her masseter muscles contracted bilaterally, when she was speaking. Brain MRI showed focal signal change on midbrain. Jaw dystonia induced by speaking is very rare and we chose an anticholinergic medication, rather than botulinumtoxin injection. Her condition was markedly improved after medication. We suspected that her symptoms were related with focal lesion, so she had secondary jaw dystonia induced by speaking.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Non-occupational task-specific masticatory dystonia
    Sang-Won Yoo, In-Seok Park, Hyung-Eun Park, Joong-Seok Kim
    Neurological Sciences.2015; 36(2): 339.     CrossRef

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders