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Phil Hyu Lee 22 Articles
Subjective Cognitive Complaints in Cognitively Normal Patients With Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review
Jin Yong Hong, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2023;16(1):1-12.   Published online November 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.22059
  • 545 View
  • 62 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) refer to self-perceived cognitive decline and are related to objective cognitive decline. SCCs in cognitively normal individuals are considered a preclinical sign of subsequent cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease, and SCCs in cognitively normal patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are also gaining attention. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the current research on SCCs in cognitively normal patients with PD. A systematic search found a lack of consistency in the methodologies used to define and measure SCCs. Although the association between SCCs and objective cognitive performance in cognitively normal patients with PD is controversial, SCCs appear to be predictive of subsequent cognitive decline. These findings support the clinical value of SCCs in cognitively normal status in PD; however, further convincing evidence from biomarker studies is needed to provide a pathophysiological basis for these findings. Additionally, a consensus on the definition and assessment of SCCs is needed for further investigations.
Potential Link Between Cognition and Motor Reserve in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease
Seok Jong Chung, Yae Ji Kim, Yun Joong Kim, Hye Sun Lee, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee, Yong Jeong, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(3):249-257.   Published online September 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.22063
  • 915 View
  • 87 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
To investigate whether there is a link between cognitive function and motor reserve (i.e., individual capacity to cope with nigrostriatal dopamine depletion) in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Methods
A total of 163 patients with drug-naïve PD who underwent 18F-FP-CIT PET, brain MRI, and a detailed neuropsychological test were enrolled. We estimated individual motor reserve based on initial motor deficits and striatal dopamine depletion using a residual model. We performed correlation analyses between motor reserve estimates and cognitive composite scores. Diffusion connectometry analysis was performed to map the white matter fiber tracts, of which fractional anisotropy (FA) values were well correlated with motor reserve estimates. Additionally, Cox regression analysis was used to assess the effect of initial motor reserve on the risk of dementia conversion.
Results
The motor reserve estimate was positively correlated with the composite score of the verbal memory function domain (γ = 0.246) and with the years of education (γ = 0.251). Connectometry analysis showed that FA values in the left fornix were positively correlated with the motor reserve estimate, while no fiber tracts were negatively correlated with the motor reserve estimate. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that higher motor reserve estimates tended to be associated with a lower risk of dementia conversion (hazard ratio, 0.781; 95% confidence interval, 0.576–1.058).
Conclusion
The present study demonstrated that the motor reserve estimate was well correlated with verbal memory function and with white matter integrity in the left fornix, suggesting a possible link between cognition and motor reserve in patients with PD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Extra-Basal Ganglia Brain Structures Are Related to Motor Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease
    Jinyoung Youn, Ji Hye Won, Mansu Kim, Junmo Kwon, Seung Hwan Moon, Minkyeong Kim, Jong Hyun Ahn, Jun Kyu Mun, Hyunjin Park, Jin Whan Cho
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2023; 13(1): 39.     CrossRef
Emerging Concepts of Motor Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease
Seok Jong Chung, Jae Jung Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(3):171-184.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.20029
  • 7,679 View
  • 278 Download
  • 18 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) explains the differences between individuals in their susceptibility to AD-related pathologies. An enhanced CR may lead to less cognitive deficits despite severe pathological lesions. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is also a common neurodegenerative disease and is mainly characterized by motor dysfunction related to striatal dopaminergic depletion. The degree of motor deficits in PD is closely correlated to the degree of dopamine depletion; however, significant individual variations still exist. Therefore, we hypothesized that the presence of motor reserve (MR) in PD explains the individual differences in motor deficits despite similar levels of striatal dopamine depletion. Since 2015, we have performed a series of studies investigating MR in de novo patients with PD using the data of initial clinical presentation and dopamine transporter PET scan. In this review, we summarized the results of these published studies. In particular, some premorbid experiences (i.e., physical activity and education) and modifiable factors (i.e., body mass index and white matter hyperintensity on brain image studies) could modulate an individual’s capacity to tolerate PD pathology, which can be maintained throughout disease progression.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Motor progression marker for newly diagnosed drug‐naïve patients with Parkinson's disease: A resting‐state functional MRI study
    Yanbing Hou, Lingyu Zhang, Ruwei Ou, Qianqian Wei, Xiaojing Gu, Kuncheng Liu, Junyu Lin, Tianmi Yang, Yi Xiao, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
    Human Brain Mapping.2023; 44(3): 901.     CrossRef
  • The Concept of Motor Reserve in Parkinson's Disease: New Wine in Old Bottles?
    Merle C. Hoenig, Verena Dzialas, Alexander Drzezga, Thilo van Eimeren
    Movement Disorders.2023; 38(1): 16.     CrossRef
  • Patterns of striatal dopamine depletion and motor deficits in de novo Parkinson’s disease
    Seong Ho Jeong, Chan Wook Park, Hye Sun Lee, Yun Joong Kim, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn, Seok Jong Chung
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2023; 130(1): 19.     CrossRef
  • Premorbid Educational Attainment and Long-Term Motor Prognosis in Parkinson’s Disease
    Seong Ho Jeong, Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Jin Ho Jung, Kyoungwon Baik, Yang Hyun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2022; 12(1): 129.     CrossRef
  • Parkinsonism and cerebrovascular disease
    Manisha Narasimhan, Raymond Schwartz, Glenda Halliday
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2022; 433: 120011.     CrossRef
  • Impact of α‐synuclein spreading on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway depends on the onset of the pathology
    Fanfan Sun, Armando G. Salinas, Severin Filser, Sonja Blumenstock, Jose Medina‐Luque, Jochen Herms, Carmelo Sgobio
    Brain Pathology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Premorbid cancer and motor reserve in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Yoon-Sang Oh, Sang-Won Yoo, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Kwang-Soo Lee, Joong-Seok Kim
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Behavioral Reserve in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia
    Su Hong Kim, Yae Ji Kim, Byung Hwa Lee, Peter Lee, Ji Hyung Park, Sang Won Seo, Yong Jeong
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Identifying the white matter structural network of motor reserve in early Parkinson's disease
    Yae Ji Kim, Chan Wook Park, Hye Won Shin, Hye Sun Lee, Yun Joong Kim, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn, Yong Jeong, Seok Jong Chung
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2022; 102: 108.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of disease progression between brain-predominant Parkinson's disease versus Parkinson's disease with body-involvement phenotypes
    Dong-Woo Ryu, Sang-Won Yoo, Yoon-Sang Oh, Kwang-Soo Lee, Seunggyun Ha, Joong-Seok Kim
    Neurobiology of Disease.2022; 174: 105883.     CrossRef
  • Genetically-informed prediction of short-term Parkinson’s disease progression
    Hossein J. Sadaei, Aldo Cordova-Palomera, Jonghun Lee, Jaya Padmanabhan, Shang-Fu Chen, Nathan E. Wineinger, Raquel Dias, Daria Prilutsky, Sandor Szalma, Ali Torkamani
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Potential Link Between Cognition and Motor Reserve in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease
    Seok Jong Chung, Yae Ji Kim, Yun Joong Kim, Hye Sun Lee, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee, Yong Jeong, Young H. Sohn
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2022; 15(3): 249.     CrossRef
  • Local striatal volume and motor reserve in drug-naïve Parkinson’s disease
    Seong Ho Jeong, Eun-Chong Lee, Seok Jong Chung, Hye Sun Lee, Jin Ho Jung, Young H. Sohn, Joon-Kyung Seong, Phil Hyu Lee
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture in treating Parkinson disease
    Wei Xu, Sha OuYang, Zhenhai Chi, ZhiQin Wang, DaoCheng Zhu, RiXin Chen, GenPing Zhong, FengTing Zhang, GuiQin Zhou, SiWei Duan, Lin Jiao
    Medicine.2021; 100(10): e25095.     CrossRef
  • Differences in cause and 12-month follow-up outcome of parkinsonian symptoms in depressed older adults treated with antipsychotics: a case series
    Anastasios Politis, Nikolaos Kokras, Michael Souvatzoglou, Kostas Siarkos, Panagiotis Toulas, Constantin Potagas, Theodoros Hatzipanagiotou, Georgios Limouris, Panagiotis Alexopoulos
    BMC Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness and safety of moxibustion for Parkinson disease
    Yonghui Hou, Baile Ning, Yamin Liu, Ying Liu, Wenbin Fu, Zehuai Wen
    Medicine.2021; 100(23): e26256.     CrossRef
  • Glucocerebrosidase Mutations and Motor Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease
    Seok Jong Chung, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn, Yun Joong Kim
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2021; 11(4): 1715.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of pupillometer results according to disease stage in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Sooyeoun You, Jeong-Ho Hong, Joonsang Yoo
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Association between Olfactory Deficit and Motor and Cognitive Function in Parkinson’s Disease
Han Soo Yoo, Seok Jong Chung, Yang Hyun Lee, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H. Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(2):133-141.   Published online April 6, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.19082
  • 7,180 View
  • 254 Download
  • 13 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
To investigate whether baseline olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients is associated with baseline and longitudinal motor and cognitive function.
Methods
We recruited 228 drug-naïve PD patients who were followed for a mean of 6 years. Patients underwent the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CCSIT), a neuropsychological test, and N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane positron emission tomography within 6 months of the baseline evaluation. Olfactory dysfunction was categorized as normosmia (CCSIT score ≥ 9), hyposmia (CCSIT score 5–8), and anosmia (CCSIT score ≤ 4). During the follow-up period, we investigated changes in the levodopa-equivalent dose (LED) and the occurrence of wearing-off, levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and dementia.
Results
Among the PD patients, 80.7% were hyposmic at the time of diagnosis, and 26.1% were anosmic. Baseline olfactory dysfunction was not associated with either initial parkinsonian motor symptoms or with the longitudinal LED increment and motor complications. Meanwhile, the anosmic group had lower baseline scores on the Korea version of the Boston Naming Test and Stroop color reading test than the normosmic and hyposmic groups. The anosmic group exhibited a higher rate of conversion to dementia than the normosmic [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 3.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–14.72] and hyposmic (adjusted HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.15–5.32) PD groups, regardless of baseline motor deficits and cognitive status.
Conclusion
Baseline olfactory dysfunction was not associated with motor deficits and complications, but it was associated with cognitive dysfunction and prognosis, suggesting that severe olfactory impairment may reflect early cortical involvement, probably in the frontotemporal region, and rapid spreading of Lewy body pathology.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Olfactory dysfunction is associated with motor function only in tremor-dominant Parkinson’s disease
    Fardin Nabizadeh, Kasra Pirahesh, Elham Khalili
    Neurological Sciences.2022; 43(7): 4193.     CrossRef
  • Novel diagnostic tools for identifying cognitive impairment using olfactory-stimulated functional near-infrared spectroscopy: patient-level, single-group, diagnostic trial
    Jaewon Kim, Dong Keon Yon, Kyu Yeong Choi, Jang Jae Lee, Namwoo Kim, Kun Ho Lee, Jae Gwan Kim
    Alzheimer's Research & Therapy.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Role of Olfactory System in the Etiogenesis of Parkinson’s Diseases: An Overview
    Jiju Narayanan Avanipully, Dithu Thekkekkara, Sahyadri M, Vipan K. Parihar, Santhepete Nanjundaiah Manjula
    Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics.2022; 13(1): 31.     CrossRef
  • International consensus statement on allergy and rhinology: Olfaction
    Zara M. Patel, Eric H. Holbrook, Justin H. Turner, Nithin D. Adappa, Mark W. Albers, Aytug Altundag, Simone Appenzeller, Richard M. Costanzo, Ilona Croy, Greg E. Davis, Puya Dehgani‐Mobaraki, Richard L. Doty, Valerie B. Duffy, Bradley J. Goldstein, David
    International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology.2022; 12(4): 327.     CrossRef
  • Does Olfactory Dysfunction Correlate with Disease Progression in Parkinson’s Disease? A Systematic Review of the Current Literature
    Tommaso Ercoli, Carla Masala, Gianluca Cadeddu, Marcello Mario Mascia, Gianni Orofino, Angelo Fabio Gigante, Paolo Solla, Giovanni Defazio, Lorenzo Rocchi
    Brain Sciences.2022; 12(5): 513.     CrossRef
  • Olfactory dysfunction and striatal dopamine transporter binding in motor subtypes of Parkinson’s disease
    Fardin Nabizadeh, Fatemeh Sodeifian, Kasra Pirahesh
    Neurological Sciences.2022; 43(8): 4745.     CrossRef
  • Olfaction and Executive Cognitive Performance: A Systematic Review
    Vasudeva Murthy Challakere Ramaswamy, Peter William Schofield
    Frontiers in Psychology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Nasal and Parotid Blood Pool Activity Is Significantly Correlated with Metabolic Syndrome Components and Sleep Apnea
    William T. Phillips, Nasser J. Issa, Shereef B. Elhalwagi, Hilda T. Draeger, Joyce G. Schwartz, Jonathan A. Gelfond
    Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.2022; 20(7): 395.     CrossRef
  • Chronic neuropsychiatric sequelae of SARS‐CoV‐2: Protocol and methods from the Alzheimer's Association Global Consortium
    Gabriel A. de Erausquin, Heather Snyder, Traolach S. Brugha, Sudha Seshadri, Maria Carrillo, Rajesh Sagar, Yueqin Huang, Charles Newton, Carmela Tartaglia, Charlotte Teunissen, Krister Håkanson, Rufus Akinyemi, Kameshwar Prasad, Giovanni D'Avossa, Gabriel
    Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Machine learning-based prediction of cognitive outcomes in de novo Parkinson’s disease
    Joshua Harvey, Rick A. Reijnders, Rachel Cavill, Annelien Duits, Sebastian Köhler, Lars Eijssen, Bart P. F. Rutten, Gemma Shireby, Ali Torkamani, Byron Creese, Albert F. G. Leentjens, Katie Lunnon, Ehsan Pishva
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Impact of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on Hyposmia in Patients With Parkinson's Disease Is Influenced by Constipation and Dysbiosis of Microbiota
    Chao Li, Ying Hou, Xu Wang, Yue-xuan Li, Feng Li, Chao Zhang, Wei-guo Li
    Frontiers in Neurology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Hyposmia may predict development of freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease
    Jae Jung Lee, Jin Yong Hong, Jong Sam Baik
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2021; 128(6): 763.     CrossRef
  • Clinical and Dopamine Depletion Patterns in Hyposmia- and Dysautonomia-Dominant Parkinson’s Disease
    Han Soo Yoo, Sangwon Lee, Seong Ho Jeong, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H. Sohn, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2021; 11(4): 1703.     CrossRef
A Case of Abnormal Postures in the Left Extremities after Pontine Hemorrhage: Dystonia or Pseudodystonia?
Chan Wook Park, Seok Jong Chung, Young H. Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(1):62-65.   Published online January 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.19074
  • 3,911 View
  • 121 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
It is difficult to determine the pathoanatomical correlates of dystonia because of its complex pathophysiology, and most cases with secondary dystonia are associated with basal ganglia lesions. Moreover, it is a challenging issue that patients with abnormal postures accompanied by other neurological findings in the affected body part (e.g., sensory loss) can be diagnosed with true dystonia or pseudodystonia. Here, we report a case of abnormal postures with loss of proprioception in the left extremities after right dorsal pontine hemorrhage.

Citations

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  • Hemidystonia after Pontine Hemorrhage Successfully Treated with Pharmacotherapy and Intensive Rehabilitation: a Case Report
    Gyu Seong Kim, Yeon Gyu Jeong, Yoon Jeong Jeong, Seo Yeon Yoon
    Brain & Neurorehabilitation.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Heterogeneous Patterns of Striatal Dopamine Loss in Patients with Young- versus Old-Onset Parkinson’s Disease: Impact on Clinical Features
Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Yang Hyun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2019;12(2):113-119.   Published online May 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.18064
  • 5,966 View
  • 141 Download
  • 17 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
Ample evidence has suggested that age at onset of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with heterogeneous clinical features in individuals. We hypothesized that this may be attributed to different patterns of nigrostriatal dopamine loss.
Methods
A total of 205 consecutive patients with de novo PD who underwent 18F-FP-CIT PET scans (mean follow-up duration, 6.31 years) were divided into three tertile groups according to their age at onset of parkinsonian motor symptoms. Striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability was compared between the old- (n = 73) and young-onset (n = 66) groups. In addition, the risk of developing freezing of gait (FOG) and longitudinal requirements for dopaminergic medications were examined.
Results
The old-onset PD group (mean age at onset, 72.66 years) exhibited more severe parkinsonian motor signs than the young-onset group (52.58 years), despite comparable DAT availability in the posterior putamen; moreover, the old-onset group exhibited more severely decreased DAT availability in the caudate than the young-onset group. A Cox regression model revealed that the old-onset PD group had a higher risk for developing FOG than the young-onset group [hazard ratio 2.523, 95% confidence interval (1.239–5.140)]. The old-onset group required higher doses of dopaminergic medications for symptom control than the young-onset group over time.
Conclusion
The present study demonstrated that the old-onset PD group exhibited more severe dopamine loss in the caudate and were more likely to develop gait freezing, suggesting that age at onset may be one of the major determinants of the pattern of striatal dopamine depletion and progression of gait disturbance in PD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Concept of Motor Reserve in Parkinson's Disease: New Wine in Old Bottles?
    Merle C. Hoenig, Verena Dzialas, Alexander Drzezga, Thilo van Eimeren
    Movement Disorders.2023; 38(1): 16.     CrossRef
  • Premorbid Educational Attainment and Long-Term Motor Prognosis in Parkinson’s Disease
    Seong Ho Jeong, Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Jin Ho Jung, Kyoungwon Baik, Yang Hyun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2022; 12(1): 129.     CrossRef
  • Treatment Enhances Betweenness Centrality of Fronto-Parietal Network in Parkinson’s Patients
    Qing Liu, ZhongYan Shi, Kexin Wang, Tiantian Liu, Shintaro Funahashi, Jinglong Wu, Jian Zhang
    Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Identifying the white matter structural network of motor reserve in early Parkinson's disease
    Yae Ji Kim, Chan Wook Park, Hye Won Shin, Hye Sun Lee, Yun Joong Kim, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn, Yong Jeong, Seok Jong Chung
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2022; 102: 108.     CrossRef
  • Potential Link Between Cognition and Motor Reserve in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease
    Seok Jong Chung, Yae Ji Kim, Yun Joong Kim, Hye Sun Lee, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee, Yong Jeong, Young H. Sohn
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2022; 15(3): 249.     CrossRef
  • Association Between White Matter Networks and the Pattern of Striatal Dopamine Depletion in Patients With Parkinson Disease
    Seok Jong Chung, Yae Ji Kim, Yun Joong Kim, Hye Sun Lee, Seong Ho Jeong, Ji-Man Hong, Young H. Sohn, Mijin Yun, Yong Jeong, Phil Hyu Lee
    Neurology.2022; 99(24): e2672.     CrossRef
  • Gut microbiota-derived metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide as a biomarker in early Parkinson's disease
    Seok Jong Chung, John Hoon Rim, Dajeong Ji, Sangwon Lee, Han Soo Yoo, Jin Ho Jung, KyoungWon Baik, Yonghoon Choi, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H. Sohn, Mijin Yun, Sang-Guk Lee, Phil Hyu Lee
    Nutrition.2021; 83: 111090.     CrossRef
  • White Matter Hyperintensities, Dopamine Loss, and Motor Deficits in De Novo Parkinson's Disease
    Seong Ho Jeong, Hye Sun Lee, Jin Ho Jung, Kyoungwon Baik, Yang Hyun Lee, Han Soo Yoo, Young H. Sohn, Seok Jong Chung, Phil Hyu Lee
    Movement Disorders.2021; 36(6): 1411.     CrossRef
  • Temporalis Muscle Thickness as an Indicator of Sarcopenia Is Associated With Long-term Motor Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease
    Seok Jong Chung, Yun Joong Kim, Han Soo Yoo, Jin Ho Jung, KyoungWon Baik, Hye Sun Lee, Yang Hyun Lee, Ji-Man Hong, Young H Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee, Jay Magaziner
    The Journals of Gerontology: Series A.2021; 76(12): 2242.     CrossRef
  • Perivascular Spaces in the Basal Ganglia and Long-term Motor Prognosis in Newly Diagnosed Parkinson Disease
    Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Na-Young Shin, Yae Won Park, Hye Sun Lee, Ji-Man Hong, Yun Joong Kim, Seung-Koo Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
    Neurology.2021; 96(16): e2121.     CrossRef
  • Diagnosis and treatment of old-onset Parkinson's disease
    久大 立花
    Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics.2021; 58(3): 341.     CrossRef
  • Genetic factors affecting dopaminergic deterioration during the premotor stage of Parkinson disease
    Myung Jun Lee, Kyoungjune Pak, Han-Kyeol Kim, Kelly N. Nudelman, Jong Hun Kim, Yun Hak Kim, Junho Kang, Min Seok Baek, Chul Hyoung Lyoo
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dopamine Transporter, Age, and Motor Complications in Parkinson's Disease: A Clinical and Single‐Photon Emission Computed Tomography Study
    Giovanni Palermo, Sara Giannoni, Daniela Frosini, Riccardo Morganti, Duccio Volterrani, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Nicola Pavese, Roberto Ceravolo
    Movement Disorders.2020; 35(6): 1028.     CrossRef
  • Positron emission tomography/computed tomography dual imaging using 18-fluorine flurodeoxyglucose and 11C-labeled 2-β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane for the severity assessment of Parkinson disease
    Xiaohong Li, Qizhou Zhang, Yongde Qin, Yubin Li, Nazimuguli Mutaerbieke, Xiaojia Zhao, Amina Yibulayin
    Medicine.2020; 99(14): e19662.     CrossRef
  • DaTSCAN (123I-FP-CIT SPECT) imaging in early versus mid and late onset Parkinson's disease: Longitudinal data from the PPMI study
    Christos Koros, Athina-Maria Simitsi, Andreas Prentakis, Nikolaos Papagiannakis, Anastasia Bougea, Ioanna Pachi, Dimitra Papadimitriou, Ion Beratis, Sokratis G. Papageorgiou, Maria Stamelou, Xenia Geronicola Trapali, Leonidas Stefanis
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2020; 77: 36.     CrossRef
  • Prediction of age at onset in Parkinson’s disease using objective specific neuroimaging genetics based on a sparse canonical correlation analysis
    Ji Hye Won, Mansu Kim, Jinyoung Youn, Hyunjin Park
    Scientific Reports.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Emerging Concepts of Motor Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease
    Seok Jong Chung, Jae Jung Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2020; 13(3): 171.     CrossRef
Patients and Their Caregivers’ Burdens for Parkinson’s Disease in Korea
Jong Sam Baik, Joong-Seok Kim, Seong-Beom Koh, Jin Whan Cho, Phil Hyu Lee, Hyeo-Il Ma, Yun Joong Kim, Tae-Beom Ahn, Sang Jin Kim, Yong Duk Kim, Seong-min Choi, Ho-Won Lee, Hee Tae Kim
J Mov Disord. 2017;10(3):109-115.   Published online September 22, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.17053
  • 6,129 View
  • 217 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
Many patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) suffer from motor and non-motor symptoms. According to these variable symptoms of PD, patients or caregivers have a poorer quality of life than patients with other neurodegenerative diseases. Since the difficulties are varied for all patients, prioritizing their difficulties differs among all cases. The goal of this study was to investigate the burdens of PD among the caregivers as well as patients and to identify areas requiring aid from the government.
Methods
We surveyed the awareness and perceptions of PD in patients and caregivers of PD by a face-to-face questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into three sections: symptoms of PD (part A), desire for policies (part B), and difficulties faced by their caregivers (part C). Part A comprised 8 questions, Part B had 2 questions, and Part C had 3 questions.
Results
In total, 853 subjects (702 patients and 151 caregivers) were enrolled in this study. The major difficulties experienced by PD patients were physical (67%), psychiatric (60%) and socio-economic (52%). Assessing the physical difficulties, more than half the patients experienced severe difficulties (29% very severe, 39% severe). Psychiatric difficulties were assessed as severe (35%) and very severe (21%) among the patients. Severe difficulties were also experienced socio-economically, at 52% in patients and 49% in caregivers, especially among patients in their fifties (58%) and those with their spouse (65%) as caregivers. The topmost need was the introduction of new technology for treatment of PD (62%), followed by relief of costs for treatment (38%) and a family support system (31%). The majority (91%) of the patients were diagnosed with PD within two years after onset of symptoms.
Conclusion
We know that the difficulties of PD and the needs for government assistance are different between patients and caregivers. These results emphasize that perceiving the difficulties and needs of patients and caregivers early can help to prevent and ameliorate the burden of disease.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Exploring Unmet Information Needs of People with Parkinson’s Disease and Their Families: Focusing on Information Sharing in an Online Patient Community
    Hyeon Sik Chu, Hye Young Jang
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(5): 2521.     CrossRef
  • Participants' perspective on a COVID-19 online vocal group stimulation for people with Parkinson's disease
    Marie-Christine Hallé, Charline Delorme, Édith Coulombe, Ouswa Rekik, Ingrid Verduyckt
    Frontiers in Rehabilitation Sciences.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Group singing improves quality of life for people with Parkinson’s: an international study
    J. Yoon Irons, Grenville Hancox, Trish Vella-Burrows, Eun-Young Han, Hyun-Ju Chong, David Sheffield, Donald E. Stewart
    Aging & Mental Health.2021; 25(4): 650.     CrossRef
  • Exploring the perceptions and stigmatizing experiences of Israeli family caregivers of people with Parkinson's disease
    Hanan AboJabel, Einat Argavan, Sharon Hassin-Baer, Rivka Inzelberg, Perla Werner
    Journal of Aging Studies.2021; 56: 100910.     CrossRef
  • Perceived online social support for Parkinson’s disease patients: The role of support type, uncertainty, contentment, and psychological quality of life
    Surin Chung, Eunjin (Anna) Kim, J. Brian Houston
    Communication Quarterly.2021; 69(3): 259.     CrossRef
  • Delivering patient-centered care in Parkinson's disease: Challenges and consensus from an international panel
    Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Pattamon Panyakaew, Claudia Trenkwalder, Beomseok Jeon, Nobutaka Hattori, Priya Jagota, Yih-Ru Wu, Elena Moro, Shen-Yang Lim, Huifang Shang, Raymond Rosales, Jee-Young Lee, Win Min Thit, Eng-King Tan, Thien Thien Lim, Ngoc Tai Tran,
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2020; 72: 82.     CrossRef
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    Xing Yan Choo, Shen-Yang Lim, Karuthan Chinna, Yan Jing Tan, Voon Wei Yong, Jia Lun Lim, Kar Foo Lau, Jing Yi Chung, Jun Min Em, Hui Ting Tan, Jia Hwa Lim, Seng Beng Tan, Chong Tin Tan, Ai Huey Tan
    Neurological Sciences.2020; 41(10): 2831.     CrossRef
  • Nörolojik Hastalık ve Evlilik
    Mehmet ÖNGER, Tuba AYDIN
    Sakarya Medical Journal.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Geum-Bong Lee, Hyunhee Woo, Su-Yoon Lee, Sang-Myung Cheon, Jae Woo Kim, Oscar Arias-Carrion
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Familial Hyperekplexia, a Potential Cause of Cautious Gait: A New Korean Case and a Systematic Review of Phenotypes
Yoonju Lee, Nan Young Kim, Sangkyoon Hong, Su Jin Chung, Seong Ho Jeong, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2017;10(1):53-58.   Published online December 27, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.16044
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  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Familial hyperekplexia, also called startle disease, is a rare neurological disorder characterized by excessive startle responses to noise or touch. It can be associated with serious injury from frequent falls, apnea spells, and aspiration pneumonia. Familial hyperekplexia has a heterogeneous genetic background with several identified causative genes; it demonstrates both dominant and recessive inheritance in the α1 subunit of the glycine receptor (GLRA1), the β subunit of the glycine receptor and the presynaptic sodium and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 2 genes. Clonazepam is an effective medical treatment for hyperekplexia. Here, we report genetically confirmed familial hyperekplexia patients presenting early adult cautious gait. Additionally, we review clinical features, mode of inheritance, ethnicity and the types and locations of mutations of previously reported hyperekplexia cases with a GLRA1 gene mutation.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Hereditary hyperekplexia: a new family and a systematic review of GLRA1 gene-related phenotypes
    Elisabetta Ferraroli, Marco Perulli, Chiara Veredice, Ilaria Contaldo, Michela Quintiliani, Martina Ricci, Ilaria Venezia, Luigi Citrigno, Antonio Qualtieri, Patrizia Spadafora, Francesca Cavalcanti, Domenica Immacolata Battaglia
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Validation of the Korean Version of the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease-Autonomic
Ji-Young Kim, In-Uk Song, Seong-Beom Koh, Tae-Beom Ahn, Sang Jin Kim, Sang-Myung Cheon, Jin Whan Cho, Yun Joong Kim, Hyeo-Il Ma, Mee-Young Park, Jong Sam Baik, Phil Hyu Lee, Sun Ju Chung, Jong-Min Kim, Han-Joon Kim, Young-Hee Sung, Do Young Kwon, Jae-Hyeok Lee, Jee-Young Lee, Ji Sun Kim, Ji Young Yun, Hee Jin Kim, Jin Young Hong, Mi-Jung Kim, Jinyoung Youn, Ji Seon Kim, Eung Seok Oh, Hui-Jun Yang, Won Tae Yoon, Sooyeoun You, Kyum-Yil Kwon, Hyung-Eun Park, Su-Yun Lee, Younsoo Kim, Hee-Tae Kim, Joong-Seok Kim
J Mov Disord. 2017;10(1):29-34.   Published online January 18, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.16057
  • 13,230 View
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  • 25 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
Autonomic symptoms are commonly observed in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and often limit the activities of daily living. The Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson’s disease-Autonomic (SCOPA-AUT) was developed to evaluate and quantify autonomic symptoms in PD. The goal of this study was to translate the original SCOPA-AUT, which was written in English, into Korean and to evaluate its reliability and validity for Korean PD patients.
Methods
For the translation, the following processes were performed: forward translation, backward translation, expert review, pretest of the pre-final version and development of the final Korean version of SCOPA-AUT (K-SCOPA-AUT). In total, 127 patients with PD from 31 movement disorder clinics of university-affiliated hospitals in Korea were enrolled in this study. All patients were assessed using the K-SCOPA-AUT and other motor, non-motor, and quality of life scores. Test-retest reliability for the K-SCOPA-AUT was assessed over a time interval of 10−14 days.
Results
The internal consistency and reliability of the K-SCOPA-AUT was 0.727 as measured by the mean Cronbach’s α-coefficient. The test-retest correlation reliability was 0.859 by the Guttman split-half coefficient. The total K-SCOPA-AUT score showed a positive correlation with other non-motor symptoms [the Korean version of non-motor symptom scale (K-NMSS)], activities of daily living (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part II) and quality of life [the Korean version of Parkinson’s Disease Quality of Life 39 (K-PDQ39)].
Conclusion
The K-SCOPA-AUT had good reliability and validity for the assessment of autonomic dysfunction in Korean PD patients. Autonomic symptom severities were associated with many other motor and non-motor impairments and influenced quality of life.

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MicroRNA Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Emerging NanoSensors Technology
Pratik Shah, Seok Keun Cho, Peter Waaben Thulstrup, Morten Jannik Bjerrum, Phil Hyu Lee, Ju-Hee Kang, Yong-Joo Bhang, Seong Wook Yang
J Mov Disord. 2017;10(1):18-28.   Published online January 18, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.16037
  • 14,542 View
  • 368 Download
  • 16 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential small RNA molecules (20–24 nt) that negatively regulate the expression of target genes at the post-transcriptional level. Due to their roles in a variety of biological processes, the aberrant expression profiles of miRNAs have been identified as biomarkers for many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases. In order to precisely, rapidly and economically monitor the expression of miRNAs, many cutting-edge nanotechnologies have been developed. One of the nanotechnologies, based on DNA encapsulated silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs), has increasingly been adopted to create nanoscale bio-sensing systems due to its attractive optical properties, such as brightness, tuneable emission wavelengths and photostability. Using the DNA/AgNCs sensor methods, the presence of miRNAs can be detected simply by monitoring the fluorescence alteration of DNA/AgNCs sensors. We introduce these DNA/ AgNCs sensor methods and discuss their possible applications for detecting miRNA biomarkers in neurodegenerative diseases.

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    Thirunavukkarsu Palaniyandi, Kanagavalli B, Pranav Prabhakaran, Sandhiya Viswanathan, Mugip Rahaman Abdul Wahab, Sudhakar Natarajan, Senthil Kumar Kaliya Moorthy, Saravanan Kumarasamy
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The MMSE and MoCA for Screening Cognitive Impairment in Less Educated Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Ji In Kim, Mun Kyung Sunwoo, Young H. Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee, Jin Y. Hong
J Mov Disord. 2016;9(3):152-159.   Published online September 21, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.16020
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  • 29 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective
To explore whether the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) can be used to screen for dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in less educated patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Methods
We reviewed the medical records of PD patients who had taken the Korean MMSE (K-MMSE), Korean MoCA (K-MoCA), and comprehensive neuropsychological tests. Predictive values of the K-MMSE and K-MoCA for dementia or MCI were analyzed in groups divided by educational level.
Results
The discriminative powers of the K-MMSE and K-MoCA were excellent [area under the curve (AUC) 0.86–0.97] for detecting dementia but not for detecting MCI (AUC 0.64–0.85). The optimal screening cutoff values of both tests increased with educational level for dementia (K-MMSE < 15 for illiterate, < 20 for 0.5–3 years of education, < 23 for 4–6 years, < 25 for 7–9 years, and < 26 for 10 years or more; K-MoCA < 7 for illiterate, < 13 for 0.5–3 years, < 16 for 4–6 years, < 19 for 7–9 years, < 20 for 10 years or more) and MCI (K-MMSE < 19 for illiterate, < 26 for 0.5–3 years, < 27 for 4–6 years, < 28 for 7–9 years, and < 29 for 10 years or more; K-MoCA < 13 for illiterate, < 21 for 0.5–3 years, < 23 for 4–6 years, < 25 for 7–9 years, < 26 for 10 years or more).
Conclusion
Both MMSE and MoCA can be used to screen for dementia in patients with PD, regardless of educational level; however, neither test is sufficient to discriminate MCI from normal cognition without additional information.

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Clinical Heterogeneity of Atypical Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration in Koreans
Jae-Hyeok Lee, Jongkyu Park, Ho-Sung Ryu, Hyeyoung Park, Young Eun Kim, Jin Yong Hong, Sang Ook Nam, Young-Hee Sung, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jee-Young Lee, Myung Jun Lee, Tae-Hyoung Kim, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Sun Ju Chung, Seong Beom Koh, Phil Hyu Lee, Jin Whan Cho, Mee Young Park, Yun Joong Kim, Young H. Sohn, Beom Seok Jeon, Myung Sik Lee
J Mov Disord. 2016;9(1):20-27.   Published online January 25, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.15058
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) represents a group of inherited movement disorders characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Recent advances have included the identification of new causative genes and highlighted the wide phenotypic variation between and within the specific NBIA subtypes. This study aimed to investigate the current status of NBIA in Korea.
Methods
We collected genetically confirmed NBIA patients from twelve nationwide referral hospitals and from a review of the literature. We conducted a study to describe the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Korean adults with atypical pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN).
Results
Four subtypes of NBIA including PKAN (n = 30), PLA2G6-related neurodegeneration (n = 2), beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (n = 1), and aceruloplasminemia (n = 1) have been identified in the Korean population. The clinical features of fifteen adults with atypical PKAN included early focal limb dystonia, parkinsonism-predominant feature, oromandibular dystonia, and isolated freezing of gait (FOG). Patients with a higher age of onset tended to present with parkinsonism and FOG. The p.R440P and p.D378G mutations are two major mutations that represent approximately 50% of the mutated alleles. Although there were no specific genotype-phenotype correlations, most patients carrying the p.D378G mutation had a late-onset, atypical form of PKAN.
Conclusions
We found considerable phenotypic heterogeneity in Korean adults with atypical PKAN. The age of onset may influence the presentation of extrapyramidal symptoms.

Citations

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Gender Differences in Age-Related Striatal Dopamine Depletion in Parkinson’s Disease
Jae Jung Lee, Jee Hyun Ham, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(3):130-135.   Published online September 10, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.15031
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  • 24 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective Gender differences are a well-known clinical characteristic of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In-vivo imaging studies demonstrated that women have greater striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) activity than do men, both in the normal population and in PD patients. We hypothesize that women exhibit more rapid aging-related striatal DAT reduction than do men, as the potential neuroprotective effect of estrogen wanes with age.
Methods This study included 307 de novo PD patients (152 men and 155 women) who underwent DAT scans for an initial diagnostic work-up. Gender differences in age-related DAT decline were assessed in striatal sub-regions using linear regression analysis.
Results Female patients exhibited greater DAT activity compared with male patients in all striatal sub-regions. The linear regression analysis revealed that age-related DAT decline was greater in the anterior and posterior caudate, and the anterior putamen in women compared with men; we did not observe this difference in other sub-regions.
Conclusions This study demonstrated the presence of gender differences in age-related DAT decline in striatal sub-regions, particularly in the antero-dorsal striatum, in patients with PD, presumably due to aging-related decrease in estrogen. Because this difference was not observed in the sensorimotor striatum, this finding also suggests that women may not have a greater capacity to tolerate PD pathogenesis than do men.

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Effect of Rivastigmine on Behavioral and Psychiatric Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease Dementia
Yoon-Sang Oh, Joong-Seok Kim, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(2):98-102.   Published online May 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.15041
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective A recent study showed that rivastigmine and memantin improved behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Alzheimer’s dementia. Furthermore, according to recent guidelines presented by the Movement Disorder Society, rivastigmine is efficacious for the treatment of dementia in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We investigated the efficacy of rivastigmine for BPSD in patients with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD).
Methods Twenty-three patients in whom cognitive impairment occurred at least one year after a diagnosis of PD participated in this open-label trial. Cognitive, psychiatric, and motor symptoms were assessed before and after 24 weeks of treatment with rivastigmine using unstructured clinical assessments and rating scales including the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory.
Results Age (± standard deviation) was 74.7 ± 5.9 years, average duration of PD was 3.5 ± 3.7 years, Hoehn and Yahr scores were 2.2 ± 0.8, and baseline MMSE scores were 19.1 ± 4.2. Improvements in global mental symptoms and neuropsychiatric symptoms were significant; among them, hallucination, depression and appetite changes improved. Caregiver distress significantly decreased, including distress resulting from hallucinations, depression, apathy, and appetite changes.
Conclusions Although controlled trials are required, the findings suggest that rivastigmine is useful for control of several neuropsychiatric symptoms and beneficial for caregiver distress in patients with PDD.

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Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease Dementia Are Associated with Increased Caregiver Burden
Yoon-Sang Oh, Ji E. Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Joong-Seok Kim
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(1):26-32.   Published online January 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.14019
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  • 29 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD). Frequent and severe neuropsychiatric symptoms create high levels of distress for patients and caregivers, decreasing their quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate neuropsychiatric symptoms that may contribute to increased caregiver burden in PDD patients.
Methods Forty-eight PDD patients were assessed using the 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) to determine the frequency and severity of mental and behavioral problems. The Burden Interview and Caregiver Burden Inventory were used to evaluate caregiver burden.
Results All but one patient showed one or more neuropsychiatric symptoms. The three most frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms were apathy (70.8%) and anxiety (70.8%), followed by depression (68.7%). More severe neuropsychiatric symptoms were significantly correlated with increased caregiver burden. The domains of delusion, hallucination, agitation and aggression, anxiety, irritability and lability, and aberrant motor behavior were associated with caregiver stress. After controlling for age and other potential confounding variables, total NPI score was significantly associated with caregiver burden.
Conclusions The results of this study confirm that neuropsychiatric symptoms are frequent and severe in patients with PDD and are associated with increased caregiver distress. A detailed evaluation and management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PDD patients appears necessary to improve patient quality of life and reduce caregiver burden.

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Current Status of Huntington’s Disease in Korea: A Nationwide Survey and National Registry Analysis
Hyun Sook Kim, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Phil Hyu Lee, Sang Jin Kim, Mee Young Park, Hyeo-Il Ma, Jae Hyeok Lee, Sook Kun Song, Jong Sam Baik, Jin Ho Kim, Myung Sik Lee
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(1):14-20.   Published online January 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.14038
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective Huntington’s disease (HD) is a rare neurological disorder, and its current status in Korea is not well investigated. This study aims to determine the prevalence and incidence of HD and to investigate the clinical features of HD patients in Korea.
Methods We estimated the crude prevalence and annual incidence of HD based on the databases of the Rare Diseases Registry (RDR) and the National Health Insurance (NHI). The clinical data of genetically confirmed HD patients was collected from 10 referral hospitals and analyzed.
Results The mean calculated annual incidence was 0.06 cases per 100,000 persons, and the mean calculated prevalence was 0.38 based on the NHI database. The estimated crude prevalence based on the RDR was 0.41. Of the sixty-eight HD patients recruited, the mean age of onset was 44.16 ± 14.08 years and chorea was most frequently reported as the initial symptom and chief complaint. The mean CAG repeat number of the expanded allele was 44.7 ± 4.8 and correlated inversely with the age of onset (p < 0.001). About two-thirds of the patients have a positive family history, and HD patients without positive family history showed a delay in onset of initial symptoms, a prolonged interval between initial symptom onset and genetic diagnosis and a delay in the age of genetic diagnosis.
Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to estimate the prevalence and incidence of HD in Korea and the largest HD series in the Asian population. Our analyses might be useful for further studies and large-scale investigations in HD patients.

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Apathy and Olfactory Dysfunction in Early Parkinson’s Disease
Jin Yong Hong, Mun Kyung Sunwoo, Jee Hyun Ham, Jae Jung Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(1):21-25.   Published online January 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.14029
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  • 20 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective Olfactory and emotional dysfunctions are very common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Olfaction and emotions share common neuroanatomical substrates. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the association between olfactory and emotional dysfunctions in patients with PD.
Methods Parkinson’s disease patients who had been assessed for their olfactory function and neuropsychiatric symptoms including emotional dysfunction were included. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between low olfaction and different neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Results The patients with low olfaction (cross cultural smell identification test score ≤ 6) showed a higher prevalence of apathy when compared with those with high olfaction, whereas the frequencies of other neuropsychiatric symptoms were comparable between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of apathy/indifference [odds ratio (OR) = 2.859, p = 0.007], age 70 years or more (OR = 2.281, p = 0.009), and the male gender (OR = 1.916, p = 0.030) were significantly associated with low olfaction.
Conclusions Our results demonstrate that apathy/indifference is a unique emotional dysfunction associated with olfactory dysfunction in PD. The findings also suggest that PD patients with low olfaction have a high prevalence of apathy.

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Analysis of the Substantia Innominata Volume in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease with Dementia, Dementia with Lewy Bodies, and Alzheimer’s Disease
Hee Jin Kim, Ji Eun Lee, Soo Jeong Shin, Young Ho Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(2):68-72.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11014
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose

The substantia innominata (SI) contains the nucleus basalis of Meynert, which is the major source of cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex. We hypothesized that degeneration of the SI and its relationship to general cognitive performance differs in amyloidopathy and synucleinopathy.

Methods

We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetric analysis to evaluate the SI volume in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), PD with dementia (PDD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and healthy elderly controls. The correlation between SI volume and general cognitive performance, measured using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), was examined.

Results

Compared to control subjects, the mean normalized SI volume was significantly decreased in all of the other groups. The normalized SI volume did not differ between the subjects with PDD and DLB, whereas it was significantly smaller in subjects with PDD (p = 0.029) and DLB (p = 0.011) compared with AD. In subjects with PD-related cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, PDD, or DLB), there was a significant positive correlation between the SI volume and K-MMSE score (r = 0.366, p < 0.001), whereas no correlation was seen in subjects with AD-related cognitive impairment (aMCI or AD).

Conclusions

Our data suggest that the SI loss is greater in synucleinopathy-related dementia (PDD or DLB) than in AD and that the contribution of the SI to cognitive performance is greater in synucleinopathy than in amyloidopathy.

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  • Cholinergic white matter pathways in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer’s disease
    Julia Schumacher, Nicola J Ray, Calum A Hamilton, Paul C Donaghy, Michael Firbank, Gemma Roberts, Louise Allan, Rory Durcan, Nicola Barnett, John T O’Brien, John-Paul Taylor, Alan J Thomas
    Brain.2022; 145(5): 1773.     CrossRef
  • Metric magnetic resonance imaging analysis reveals pronounced substantia-innominata atrophy in dementia with Lewy bodies with a psychiatric onset
    Niels Hansen, Sebastian Johannes Müller, Eya Khadhraoui, Christian Heiner Riedel, Philip Langer, Jens Wiltfang, Charles-Arnold Timäus, Caroline Bouter, Marielle Ernst, Claudia Lange
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • In vivo nucleus basalis of Meynert degeneration in mild cognitive impairment with Lewy bodies
    Julia Schumacher, John-Paul Taylor, Calum A. Hamilton, Michael Firbank, Ruth A. Cromarty, Paul C. Donaghy, Gemma Roberts, Louise Allan, Jim Lloyd, Rory Durcan, Nicola Barnett, John T. O'Brien, Alan J. Thomas
    NeuroImage: Clinical.2021; 30: 102604.     CrossRef
  • EEG alpha reactivity and cholinergic system integrity in Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer’s disease
    Julia Schumacher, Alan J. Thomas, Luis R. Peraza, Michael Firbank, Ruth Cromarty, Calum A. Hamilton, Paul C. Donaghy, John T. O’Brien, John-Paul Taylor
    Alzheimer's Research & Therapy.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Transcriptional network analysis in frontal cortex in Lewy body diseases with focus on dementia with Lewy bodies
    Gabriel Santpere, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Pol Andres-Benito, Belen Lorente-Galdos, Arcadi Navarro, Isidro Ferrer
    Brain Pathology.2018; 28(3): 315.     CrossRef
  • Nucleus Basalis of Meynert Stimulation for Dementia: Theoretical and Technical Considerations
    Deepak Kumbhare, Viktoras Palys, Jamie Toms, Chathurika S. Wickramasinghe, Kasun Amarasinghe, Milos Manic, Evan Hughes, Kathryn L. Holloway
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dementia with Lewy Bodies: Molecular Pathology in the Frontal Cortex in Typical and Rapidly Progressive Forms
    Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Irene López-González, Oriol Grau-Rivera, María Francisca García-Garrido, Anusha Konetti, Franc Llorens, Saima Zafar, Margarita Carmona, José Antonio del Rio, Inga Zerr, Ellen Gelpi, Isidro Ferrer
    Frontiers in Neurology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Biomarkers for dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease
    Manuel Delgado-Alvarado, Belén Gago, Irene Navalpotro-Gomez, Haritz Jiménez-Urbieta, María C. Rodriguez-Oroz
    Movement Disorders.2016; 31(6): 861.     CrossRef
  • Nucleus basalis of Meynert revisited: anatomy, history and differential involvement in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease
    Alan King Lun Liu, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Ronald K. B. Pearce, Steve M. Gentleman
    Acta Neuropathologica.2015; 129(4): 527.     CrossRef
Cognitive Impairments in Multiple System Atrophy of the Cerebellar Type
Hyun J. Hong, Sook Keun. Song, Phil Hyu Lee, Young Ho Sohn, Ji E. Lee
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):41-45.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.11007
  • 11,253 View
  • 68 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose

We investigated the cognitive profiles in a large sample of patients with multiple system atrophy-cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C) and compared directly them in patients with clinical diagnosis of probable MSA-C without dementia and control subjects with intact cognition.

Methods

We prospectively enrolled 26 patients with clinical diagnosis of probable MSA-C. All patients underwent a standardized neuropsychological test of the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery.

Results

The score of Korean version of the Mini- Mental State Examination was significantly lower in patients with MSA-C (27.2 ± 2.5) than in control subjects (28.9 ± 1.0, p = 0.003). Patients with MSA-C showed a significantly worse performance in visuospatial function, 3 words recall, verbal immediate, delayed and recognition memory, visual delayed memory, phonemic and sementic Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and ideomotor praxis (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

Patients with MSA-C show more severe and more widespread cognitive dysfunctions than controls. Our results also indicate that cognitive dysfunction in patients with MCA-C is suggestive of disruption of the cerebellocortical circuits.

Citations

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  • Morphological differences between the two major subtypes of multiple system atrophy with cognitive impairment
    Kurt A. Jellinger
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2023; 107: 105273.     CrossRef
  • Cognition in Patients With Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and Its Neuroimaging Correlation: A Prospective Case-Control Study
    Santosh Dash, Rohan Mahale, M. Netravathi, Nitish L Kamble, Vikram Holla, Ravi Yadav, Pramod K Pal
    Cureus.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Cognitive Profile of Atypical Parkinsonism: A Meta-Analysis
    Simona Raimo, Mariachiara Gaita, Maria Cropano, Giusi Mautone, Alfonsina D’Iorio, Luigi Trojano, Gabriella Santangelo
    Neuropsychology Review.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cognition in multiple system atrophy: a single‐center cohort study
    Sabine Eschlböck, Margarete Delazer, Florian Krismer, Thomas Bodner, Alessandra Fanciulli, Beatrice Heim, Antonio Heras Garvin, Christine Kaindlstorfer, Elfriede Karner, Katherina Mair, Christoph Rabensteiner, Cecilia Raccagni, Klaus Seppi, Werner Poewe,
    Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology.2020; 7(2): 219.     CrossRef
  • Neuropathological findings in multiple system atrophy with cognitive impairment
    Kurt A. Jellinger
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2020; 127(7): 1031.     CrossRef
  • An update on MSA: premotor and non-motor features open a window of opportunities for early diagnosis and intervention
    Viorica Chelban, Daniela Catereniuc, Daniela Aftene, Alexandru Gasnas, Ekawat Vichayanrat, Valeria Iodice, Stanislav Groppa, Henry Houlden
    Journal of Neurology.2020; 267(9): 2754.     CrossRef
  • A case of multiple system atrophy
    Jing Guo, Fuying Liu, Tingting Liu, Xin Zhang, Yong Luo
    Journal of International Medical Research.2019; 47(11): 5839.     CrossRef
  • Cognitive impairment before changes appear on [18F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography images in a patient with possible early-stage cerebellar-predominant multiple system atrophy
    Masahiko Takaya, Masahiko Atsumi, Tomoyuki Hirose, Kazunari Ishii, Osamu Shirakawa
    Psychogeriatrics.2016; 16(3): 216.     CrossRef
  • Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome: phenotypic comparisons with other movement disorders
    Erin E. Robertson, Deborah A. Hall, Andrew R. McAsey, Joan A. O’Keefe
    The Clinical Neuropsychologist.2016; 30(6): 849.     CrossRef
  • A brain-targeted, modified neurosin (kallikrein-6) reduces α-synuclein accumulation in a mouse model of multiple system atrophy
    Brian Spencer, Elvira Valera, Edward Rockenstein, Margarita Trejo-Morales, Anthony Adame, Eliezer Masliah
    Molecular Neurodegeneration.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cognitive Impairment and Its Structural Correlates in the Parkinsonian Subtype of Multiple System Atrophy
    Ji Sun Kim, Jin-ju Yang, Dong-Kyun Lee, Jong-min Lee, Jinyoung Youn, Jin Whan Cho
    Neurodegenerative Diseases.2015; 15(5): 294.     CrossRef
A Cerebellar Tremor in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Associated with Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
Hee-Jin Kim, Jae-Jung Lee, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2009;2(2):88-90.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.09024
  • 65,535 View
  • 45 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by JC virus infection in oligodendrocytes, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Movement disorders associated with PML are very rare. Here, we report a case of PML in an AIDS patient who presented with a cerebellar tremor, caused by lesions in the cerebellar outflow tract. A cerebellar tremor can be a rare clinical manifestation in patients with PML.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Holmes tremor caused by a natalizumab-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a case report and brief review of the literature
    Luca Magistrelli, Domizia Vecchio, Paola Naldi, Cristoforo Comi, Roberto Cantello
    Neurological Sciences.2019; 40(9): 1943.     CrossRef
Parkinsonsim due to a Chronic Subdural Hematoma
Bosuk Park, Sook Keun Song, Jin Yong Hong, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2009;2(1):43-44.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.09011
  • 10,798 View
  • 76 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Subdural hematoma is a rare cause of parkinsonism. We present the case of a 78-year-old man with right-side dominant parkinsonism about 3 months after a minor head injury. MRI reveals a chronic subdural hematoma on the left side with mildly displaced midline structures. The parkinsonian features were almost completely disappeared after neurosurgical evacuation of the hematoma without any anti-parkinson drug.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Parkinsonism-like features following reconstructive cranioplasty
    Mayank Tyagi, Charu Mahajan, Indu Kapoor, Hemanshu Prabhakar
    Neurological Sciences.2021; 42(4): 1591.     CrossRef
  • Chronic subdural hematoma-induced parkinsonism: A systematic review
    Achmad Fahmi, Heru Kustono, Komang Sena Adhistira, Heri Subianto, Budi Utomo, Agus Turchan
    Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery.2021; 208: 106826.     CrossRef
  • Secondary parkinsonism caused by chronic subdural hematomas owing to compressed cortex and a disturbed cortico–basal ganglia–thalamocortical circuit: illustrative case
    Masao Fukumura, Sho Murase, Yuzo Kuroda, Kazutomo Nakazawa, Yasufumi Gon
    Journal of Neurosurgery: Case Lessons.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Involuntary Scapular Movements as a Possible Manifestation of Radicular Myoclonus
Bosuk Park, Sook Keun Song, Phil Hyu Lee
J Mov Disord. 2008;1(2):104-106.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14802/jmd.08021
  • 7,625 View
  • 42 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Radicular myoclonus (RM) is a kind of peripheral myoclonus exclusively related with traumatic spinal root lesion. Here we describe a case with involuntary scapular movements as a possible manifestation of RM. A 37-year-old woman without any underlying disease developedinvoluntary movements of left shoulder two days after cervical trauma. On needle electromyographic recordings, the myoclonic jerky movements were found in left serratus anterior and rhomboid major muscles, and the duration of bursts ranged from 100 to 300 ms with the irregular frequency of 1–2 Hz. Electromyography studies showed accompanying left C5 radiculopathy. Treatment with clonazepm markedly improved involuntary scapular movements.


JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders