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Mark Hallett 7 Articles
The Supplementary Motor Complex in Parkinson’s Disease
Shervin Rahimpour, Shashank Rajkumar, Mark Hallett
J Mov Disord. 2022;15(1):21-32.   Published online November 25, 2021
  • 3,402 View
  • 322 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although the basal ganglia is traditionally the primary brain region implicated in this disease process, this limited view ignores the roles of the cortex and cerebellum that are networked with the basal ganglia to support motor and cognitive functions. In particular, recent research has highlighted dysfunction in the supplementary motor complex (SMC) in patients with PD. Using the PubMed and Google Scholar search engines, we identified research articles using keywords pertaining to the involvement of the SMC in action sequencing impairments, temporal processing disturbances, and gait impairment in patients with PD. A review of abstracts and full-text articles was used to identify relevant articles. In this review of 63 articles, we focus on the role of the SMC in PD, highlighting anatomical and functional data to create new perspectives in understanding clinical symptoms and, potentially, new therapeutic targets. The SMC has a nuanced role in the pathophysiology of PD, with both hypo- and hyperactivation associated with various symptoms. Further studies using more standardized patient populations and functional tasks are needed to more clearly elucidate the role of this region in the pathophysiology and treatment of PD.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Sensorimotor network connectivity correlates with motor improvement after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease
    Shumei Chi, Xinrui Wen, Yang Yu, Guanjun Wang, Jie Zhang, Chuang Xue, Xiaoying Zhang, Zheng Wang, Meiduo Gesang, Jiefang Chen, Sha Wu, Man Jin, Jian Liu, Benyan Luo
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2023; 106: 105218.     CrossRef
  • A new model for freedom of movement using connectomic analysis
    Diego Alonzo Rodríguez-Méndez, Daniel San-Juan, Mark Hallett, Chris G. Antonopoulos, Erick López-Reynoso, Ricardo Lara-Ramírez
    PeerJ.2022; 10: e13602.     CrossRef
  • Cortical and subcortical morphological alterations in motor subtypes of Parkinson’s disease
    Jianyu Li, Yuanchao Zhang, Zitong Huang, Yihan Jiang, Zhanbing Ren, Daihong Liu, Jiuquan Zhang, Roberta La Piana, Yifan Chen
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
The Relationship between Saccades and Locomotion
Anshul Srivastava, Omar F. Ahmad, Christopher Pham Pacia, Mark Hallett, Codrin Lungu
J Mov Disord. 2018;11(3):93-106.   Published online August 9, 2018
  • 12,630 View
  • 443 Download
  • 13 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Human locomotion involves a complex interplay among multiple brain regions and depends on constant feedback from the visual system. We summarize here the current understanding of the relationship among fixations, saccades, and gait as observed in studies sampling eye movements during locomotion, through a review of the literature and a synthesis of the relevant knowledge on the topic. A significant overlap in locomotor and saccadic neural circuitry exists that may support this relationship. Several animal studies have identified potential integration nodes between these overlapping circuitries. Behavioral studies that explored the relationship of saccadic and gait-related impairments in normal conditions and in various disease states are also discussed. Eye movements and locomotion share many underlying neural circuits, and further studies can leverage this interplay for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effectiveness of eye movement exercise and diaphragmatic breathing with jogging in reducing migraine symptoms: A preliminary, randomized comparison trial
    Mohammad Dawood Rahimi, Pouriya Hassani, Mohammad Taghi Kheirkhah, Javad Salehi Fadardi
    Brain and Behavior.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The frequency and characteristics of saccadic dysmetria in isolated cerebellar infarction
    Sohyeon Kim, Hyun Ah Kim, Hyung Lee
    Neurological Sciences.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • What Happens in Your Brain When You Walk Down the Street? Implications of Architectural Proportions, Biophilia, and Fractal Geometry for Urban Science
    Aenne A. Brielmann, Nir H. Buras, Nikos A. Salingaros, Richard P. Taylor
    Urban Science.2022; 6(1): 3.     CrossRef
  • Decreased Saccadic Eye Movement Speed Correlates with Dynamic Balance in Older Adults
    Youngsook Bae
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(13): 7842.     CrossRef
  • Effects of different virtual reality technology driven dual-tasking paradigms on posture and saccadic eye movements in healthy older adults
    Yu Imaoka, Andri Flury, Laura Hauri, Eling D. de Bruin
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Coordination between Eye Movement and Whisking in Head-Fixed Mice Navigating a Plus Maze
    Ronny Bergmann, Keisuke Sehara, Sina E. Dominiak, Jens Kremkow, Matthew E. Larkum, Robert N. S. Sachdev
    eneuro.2022; 9(4): ENEURO.0089-22.2022.     CrossRef
  • Deep brain stimulation and eye movements
    Maja Klarendic, Diego Kaski
    European Journal of Neuroscience.2021; 53(7): 2344.     CrossRef
  • Antisaccade, a predictive marker for freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease and gait/gaze network connectivity
    Cécile Gallea, Benoit Wicki, Claire Ewenczyk, Sophie Rivaud-Péchoux, Lydia Yahia-Cherif, Pierre Pouget, Marie Vidailhet, Elodie Hainque
    Brain.2021; 144(2): 504.     CrossRef
  • Response Inhibition Deficits in Women with the FMR1 Premutation are Associated with Age and Fall Risk
    Carly Moser, Lyndsay Schmitt, Joseph Schmidt, Amanda Fairchild, Jessica Klusek
    Brain and Cognition.2021; 148: 105675.     CrossRef
  • Concomitant improvement in anti-saccade success rate and postural instability gait difficulty after rTMS treatment for Parkinson’s disease
    Ken-ichi Okada, Mizuki Takahira, Tomoo Mano, Taichi Uga, Kuni Konaka, Koichi Hosomi, Youichi Saitoh
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Multitasking Compensatory Saccadic Training Program for Hemianopia Patients: A New Approach With 3-Dimensional Real-World Objects
    Laura Mena-Garcia, Jose C. Pastor-Jimeno, Miguel J. Maldonado, Maria B. Coco-Martin, Itziar Fernandez, Juan F. Arenillas
    Translational Vision Science & Technology.2021; 10(2): 3.     CrossRef
  • The Role of Binocular Vision in Avoiding Virtual Obstacles While Walking
    Jingbo Zhao, Robert S. Allison
    IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics.2021; 27(7): 3277.     CrossRef
  • Saccade and Fixation Eye Movements During Walking in People With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
    Ellen Lirani-Silva, Samuel Stuart, Lucy Parrington, Kody Campbell, Laurie King
    Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Multifocal Myoclonus as a Manifestation of Acute Cerebral Infarction Recovered by Carotid Arterial Stenting
Hyangkyoung Kim, Jun Soo Byun, Mark Hallett, Hae-Won Shin
J Mov Disord. 2017;10(1):64-66.   Published online January 18, 2017
  • 7,349 View
  • 84 Download
  • 1 Citations


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Movement Disorders Associated With Cerebral Artery Stenosis: A Nationwide Study
    Kye Won Park, Nari Choi, Eungseok Oh, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Min Seok Baek, Han-Joon Kim, Dalla Yoo, Jee-Young Lee, Ji-Hyun Choi, Jae Hyeok Lee, Seong-Beom Koh, Young Hee Sung, Jin Whan Cho, Hui-Jun Yang, Jinse Park, Hae-Won Shin, Tae-Beom Ahn, Ho-Sung Ryu, So
    Frontiers in Neurology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Tremor in a Bassoonist: Tremor in Dystonia or Essential Tremor?
Jung E Park, Vesper Fe Marie L. Ramos, Mark Hallett
J Mov Disord. 2016;9(2):124-125.   Published online March 2, 2016
  • 10,949 View
  • 56 Download
PDFSupplementary Material
Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation for Treatment of Focal Hand Dystonia: Update and Future Direction
Hyun Joo Cho, Mark Hallett
J Mov Disord. 2016;9(2):55-62.   Published online May 25, 2016
  • 15,598 View
  • 231 Download
  • 21 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Focal hand dystonia (FHD) is characterized by excessive and unwanted muscle activation in both the hand and arm resulting in impaired performance in particular tasks. Understanding the pathophysiology of FHD has progressed significantly for several decades and this has led to consideration of other potential therapies such as non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). A number of studies have been conducted to develop new therapy for FHD using transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. In this paper, we review previous studies and describe the potential therapeutic use of NIBS for FHD. We also discuss the future direction of NIBS to treat FHD.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Treatment of writer’s cramp based on current pathophysiological concepts
    Kirsten E. Zeuner, Alexander Baumann, Karsten Witt
    Dystonia.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Technical Ability and Performing Scale (TAPS): A newly developed patient-reported functional rating scale for Musician's focal dystonia
    Marina Ramella, Rosa Maria Converti, Giulia Giacobbi, Anna Castagna, Enrico Saibene, Francesca Borgnis, Francesca Baglio
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2022; 99: 79.     CrossRef
  • Effects of non-invasive brain stimulation in dystonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Jordan Morrison-Ham, Gillian M. Clark, Elizabeth G. Ellis, Andris Cerins, Juho Joutsa, Peter G. Enticott, Daniel T. Corp
    Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders.2022; 15: 175628642211381.     CrossRef
  • New modalities and directions for dystonia care
    Genko Oyama, Nobutaka Hattori
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2021; 128(4): 559.     CrossRef
  • Taakspecifieke focale dystonie bij musici
    T. DOOMS
    Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Laryngeal Dystonia
    Kristina Simonyan, Julie Barkmeier-Kraemer, Andrew Blitzer, Mark Hallett, John F. Houde, Teresa Jacobson Kimberley, Laurie J. Ozelius, Michael J. Pitman, Robert Mark Richardson, Nutan Sharma, Kristine Tanner
    Neurology.2021; 96(21): 989.     CrossRef
  • Treatment of focal hand dystonia: current status
    Navnika Gupta, Sanjay Pandey
    Neurological Sciences.2021; 42(9): 3561.     CrossRef
  • Alterations of Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity and Degree Centrality in Cervical Dystonia: A Resting-State fMRI Study
    Wenyan Jiang, Yiwu Lei, Jing Wei, Lu Yang, Shubao Wei, Qiong Yin, Shuguang Luo, Wenbin Guo
    Neural Plasticity.2019; 2019: 1.     CrossRef
  • Update on current and emerging therapies for dystonia
    Karlo J Lizarraga, Duha Al-Shorafat, Susan Fox
    Neurodegenerative Disease Management.2019; 9(3): 135.     CrossRef
  • Lasting Effects of Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Writer’s Cramp: A Case Report
    Antonino Naro, Luana Billeri, Simona Portaro, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A unifying motor control framework for task-specific dystonia
    Anna Sadnicka, Katja Kornysheva, John C. Rothwell, Mark J. Edwards
    Nature Reviews Neurology.2018; 14(2): 116.     CrossRef
  • Pain in focal dystonias – A focused review to address an important component of the disease
    Micol Avenali, R. De Icco, M. Tinazzi, G. Defazio, L. Tronconi, G. Sandrini, C. Tassorelli
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2018; 54: 17.     CrossRef
  • Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Combined with Action Observation and Electromyographic Biofeedback Training in a Patient with Writer’s Cramp
    Yohei Okada, Chiharu Shibamoto, Yukari Osumi, Chihiro Asano, Riho Takeuchi, Sachio Nabeshima, Shu Morioka, Koji Shomoto
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2018; 11(2): 82.     CrossRef
  • Dystonia
    Bettina Balint, Niccolò E. Mencacci, Enza Maria Valente, Antonio Pisani, John Rothwell, Joseph Jankovic, Marie Vidailhet, Kailash P. Bhatia
    Nature Reviews Disease Primers.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Stereotactic Lesioning of the Thalamic Vo Nucleus for the Treatment of Writer's Cramp (Focal Hand Dystonia)
    Takeshi Shimizu, Tomoyuki Maruo, Shimpei Miura, Haruhiko Kishima, Yukitaka Ushio, Satoshi Goto
    Frontiers in Neurology.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Biased Visuospatial Attention in Cervical Dystonia
    Gaetana Chillemi, Caterina Formica, Adriana Salatino, Alessandro Calamuneri, Paolo Girlanda, Francesca Morgante, Demetrio Milardi, Carmen Terranova, Alberto Cacciola, Angelo Quartarone, Raffaella Ricci
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.2018; 24(1): 22.     CrossRef
  • Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
    Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Andrea Antal, Samar S. Ayache, David H. Benninger, Jérôme Brunelin, Filippo Cogiamanian, Maria Cotelli, Dirk De Ridder, Roberta Ferrucci, Berthold Langguth, Paola Marangolo, Veit Mylius, Michael A. Nitsche, Frank Padberg, Ulrich Pa
    Clinical Neurophysiology.2017; 128(1): 56.     CrossRef
  • Research Priorities in Limb and Task-Specific Dystonias
    Sarah Pirio Richardson, Eckart Altenmüller, Katharine Alter, Ron L. Alterman, Robert Chen, Steven Frucht, Shinichi Furuya, Joseph Jankovic, H. A. Jinnah, Teresa J. Kimberley, Codrin Lungu, Joel S. Perlmutter, Cecília N. Prudente, Mark Hallett
    Frontiers in Neurology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation as an Alternative Treatment in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease
    Yeo Jin Kim
    Brain & Neurorehabilitation.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Non‐invasive brain stimulation for dystonia: therapeutic implications
    R. Erro, M. Tinazzi, F. Morgante, K. P. Bhatia
    European Journal of Neurology.2017; 24(10): 1228.     CrossRef
  • Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improves Focal Hand Dystonia in Musicians: A Two-Case Study
    Sara Marceglia, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Manuela Fumagalli, Roberta Ferrucci, Francesca Mameli, Maurizio Vergari, Sergio Barbieri, Alberto Priori
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
Reorganization of the Human Somatosensory Cortex in Hand Dystonia
Maria Jose Catalan, Kenji Ishii, William Bara-Jimenez, Mark Hallett
J Mov Disord. 2012;5(1):5-8.
  • 8,059 View
  • 53 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose:

Abnormalities of finger representations in the somatosensory cortex have been identified in patients with focal hand dystonia. Measuring blood flow with positron emission tomography (PET) can be use to demonstrate functional localization of receptive fields.


A vibratory stimulus was applied to the right thumb and little finger of six healthy volunteers and six patients with focal hand dystonia to map their receptive fields using H215O PET.


The cortical finger representations in the primary somatosensory cortex were closer to each other in patients than in normal subjects. No abnormalities were found in secondary somatosensory cortex, but the somatotopy there is less well distinguished.


These data confirm prior electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging observations showing abnormalities of finger representations in somatosensory cortex of patients with focal hand dystonia.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Laminar VASO fMRI in focal hand dystonia patients
    Laurentius Huber, Panagiotis Kassavetis, Omer Faruk Gulban, Mark Hallett, Silvina G. Horovitz
    Dystonia.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sensory Alterations in Patients with Isolated Idiopathic Dystonia: An Exploratory Quantitative Sensory Testing Analysis
    Lejla Paracka, Florian Wegner, Christian Blahak, Mahmoud Abdallat, Assel Saryyeva, Dirk Dressler, Matthias Karst, Joachim K. Krauss
    Frontiers in Neurology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
The Sequence Effect in De Novo Parkinson’s Disease
Suk Yun Kang, Toshiaki Wasaka, Ejaz A. Shamim, Sungyoung Auh, Yoshino Ueki, Nguyet Dang, Mark Hallett
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):38-40.
  • 11,685 View
  • 52 Download
  • 11 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose

The sequence effect (SE) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) denotes progressive slowness in speed or progressive decrease in amplitude of repetitive movements. It is a well-known feature of bradykinesia and is considered unique in PD. Until now, it was well-documented in advanced PD, but not in drug-naïve PD. The aim of this study is to know whether the SE can also be measured in drug-naïve PD.


We measured the SE with a computer-based, modified Purdue pegboard in 4 drug-naïve PD patients, which matched our previous study with advanced PD patients.


We observed progressive slowness during movement, that is, SE. Statistical analysis showed a strong statistical trend toward the SE with the right hand, but no significance with the left hand. There was no statistical significance of SE with either the more or less affected hands.


These results indicate that the SE can be identified in drug-naïve PD, as well as in advanced PD, with objective measurements and support the idea that the SE is a feature in PD observed during the early stage of the disease without medication.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Bradykinesia in Neurodegenerative Disorders: A Blinded Video Analysis of Pathology‐Proven Cases
    Luca Marsili, Kevin R. Duque, Nathan Gregor, Elhusseini Abdelghany, Jesus Abanto, Andrew P. Duker, Matthew C. Hagen, Alberto J. Espay, Matteo Bologna
    Movement Disorders.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Neurofeedback-guided kinesthetic motor imagery training in Parkinson’s disease: Randomized trial
    Sule Tinaz, Serageldin Kamel, Sai S. Aravala, Mohamed Elfil, Ahmed Bayoumi, Amar Patel, Dustin Scheinost, Rajita Sinha, Michelle Hampson
    NeuroImage: Clinical.2022; 34: 102980.     CrossRef
  • The Pathophysiological Correlates of Parkinson's Disease Clinical Subtypes
    Daniele Belvisi, Andrea Fabbrini, Maria Ilenia De Bartolo, Matteo Costanzo, Nicoletta Manzo, Giovanni Fabbrini, Giovanni Defazio, Antonella Conte, Alfredo Berardelli
    Movement Disorders.2021; 36(2): 370.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Intensive Neurorehabilitation on Sequence Effect in Parkinson's Disease Patients With and Without Freezing of Gait
    Alessia Putortì, Michele Corrado, Micol Avenali, Daniele Martinelli, Marta Allena, Silvano Cristina, Valentina Grillo, Luca Martinis, Stefano Tamburin, Mariano Serrao, Antonio Pisani, Cristina Tassorelli, Roberto De Icco
    Frontiers in Neurology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evolving concepts on bradykinesia
    Matteo Bologna, Giulia Paparella, Alfonso Fasano, Mark Hallett, Alfredo Berardelli
    Brain.2020; 143(3): 727.     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of Exercise on the Sequence Effect in Parkinson’s Disease
    Suk Yun Kang, Young Ho Sohn
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2020; 13(3): 213.     CrossRef
  • Neurophysiological correlates of bradykinesia in Parkinson’s disease
    Matteo Bologna, Andrea Guerra, Giulia Paparella, Laura Giordo, Danilo Alunni Fegatelli, Anna Rita Vestri, John C Rothwell, Alfredo Berardelli
    Brain.2018; 141(8): 2432.     CrossRef
  • Insula as the Interface Between Body Awareness and Movement: A Neurofeedback-Guided Kinesthetic Motor Imagery Study in Parkinson’s Disease
    Sule Tinaz, Kiran Para, Ana Vives-Rodriguez, Valeria Martinez-Kaigi, Keerthana Nalamada, Mine Sezgin, Dustin Scheinost, Michelle Hampson, Elan D. Louis, R. Todd Constable
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sequence Effect in Parkinson’s Disease Is Related to Motor Energetic Cost
    Sule Tinaz, Ajay S. Pillai, Mark Hallett
    Frontiers in Neurology.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Bradykinesia in early and advanced Parkinson's disease
    Matteo Bologna, Giorgio Leodori, Paola Stirpe, Giulia Paparella, Donato Colella, Daniele Belvisi, Alfonso Fasano, Giovanni Fabbrini, Alfredo Berardelli
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2016; 369: 286.     CrossRef
  • Neural correlates of progressive reduction of bradykinesia in de novo Parkinson's disease
    Eeksung Lee, Ji Eun Lee, Kwangsun Yoo, Jin Yong Hong, Jungsu Oh, Mun Kyung Sunwoo, Jae Seung Kim, Yong Jeong, Phil Hyu Lee, Young Ho Sohn, Suk Yun Kang
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2014;[Epub]     CrossRef

JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders