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Mario Manto 1 Article
Immune-Mediated Cerebellar Ataxias: Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Based on Immunological and Physiological Mechanisms
Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto, Marios Hadjivassiliou
J Mov Disord. 2021;14(1):10-28.   Published online January 12, 2021
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Since the first description of immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias (IMCAs) by Charcot in 1868, several milestones have been reached in our understanding of this group of neurological disorders. IMCAs have diverse etiologies, such as gluten ataxia, postinfectious cerebellitis, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome, anti-GAD ataxia, and primary autoimmune cerebellar ataxia. The cerebellum, a vulnerable autoimmune target of the nervous system, has remarkable capacities (collectively known as the cerebellar reserve, closely linked to plasticity) to compensate and restore function following various pathological insults. Therefore, good prognosis is expected when immune-mediated therapeutic interventions are delivered during early stages when the cerebellar reserve can be preserved. However, some types of IMCAs show poor responses to immunotherapies, even if such therapies are introduced at an early stage. Thus, further research is needed to enhance our understanding of the autoimmune mechanisms underlying IMCAs, as such research could potentially lead to the development of more effective immunotherapies. We underscore the need to pursue the identification of robust biomarkers.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
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JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders