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Ji E. Lee 2 Articles
Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease Dementia Are Associated with Increased Caregiver Burden
Yoon-Sang Oh, Ji E. Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Joong-Seok Kim
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(1):26-32.   Published online January 31, 2015
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  • 33 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD). Frequent and severe neuropsychiatric symptoms create high levels of distress for patients and caregivers, decreasing their quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate neuropsychiatric symptoms that may contribute to increased caregiver burden in PDD patients.
Methods Forty-eight PDD patients were assessed using the 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) to determine the frequency and severity of mental and behavioral problems. The Burden Interview and Caregiver Burden Inventory were used to evaluate caregiver burden.
Results All but one patient showed one or more neuropsychiatric symptoms. The three most frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms were apathy (70.8%) and anxiety (70.8%), followed by depression (68.7%). More severe neuropsychiatric symptoms were significantly correlated with increased caregiver burden. The domains of delusion, hallucination, agitation and aggression, anxiety, irritability and lability, and aberrant motor behavior were associated with caregiver stress. After controlling for age and other potential confounding variables, total NPI score was significantly associated with caregiver burden.
Conclusions The results of this study confirm that neuropsychiatric symptoms are frequent and severe in patients with PDD and are associated with increased caregiver distress. A detailed evaluation and management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PDD patients appears necessary to improve patient quality of life and reduce caregiver burden.


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Cognitive Impairments in Multiple System Atrophy of the Cerebellar Type
Hyun J. Hong, Sook Keun. Song, Phil Hyu Lee, Young Ho Sohn, Ji E. Lee
J Mov Disord. 2011;4(1):41-45.
  • 12,193 View
  • 70 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Purpose

We investigated the cognitive profiles in a large sample of patients with multiple system atrophy-cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C) and compared directly them in patients with clinical diagnosis of probable MSA-C without dementia and control subjects with intact cognition.


We prospectively enrolled 26 patients with clinical diagnosis of probable MSA-C. All patients underwent a standardized neuropsychological test of the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery.


The score of Korean version of the Mini- Mental State Examination was significantly lower in patients with MSA-C (27.2 ± 2.5) than in control subjects (28.9 ± 1.0, p = 0.003). Patients with MSA-C showed a significantly worse performance in visuospatial function, 3 words recall, verbal immediate, delayed and recognition memory, visual delayed memory, phonemic and sementic Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and ideomotor praxis (p < 0.05).


Patients with MSA-C show more severe and more widespread cognitive dysfunctions than controls. Our results also indicate that cognitive dysfunction in patients with MCA-C is suggestive of disruption of the cerebellocortical circuits.


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JMD : Journal of Movement Disorders