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Jae Jung Lee 3 Articles
Emerging Concepts of Motor Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease
Seok Jong Chung, Jae Jung Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2020;13(3):171-184.   Published online August 31, 2020
  • 10,405 View
  • 311 Download
  • 33 Web of Science
  • 33 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) explains the differences between individuals in their susceptibility to AD-related pathologies. An enhanced CR may lead to less cognitive deficits despite severe pathological lesions. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is also a common neurodegenerative disease and is mainly characterized by motor dysfunction related to striatal dopaminergic depletion. The degree of motor deficits in PD is closely correlated to the degree of dopamine depletion; however, significant individual variations still exist. Therefore, we hypothesized that the presence of motor reserve (MR) in PD explains the individual differences in motor deficits despite similar levels of striatal dopamine depletion. Since 2015, we have performed a series of studies investigating MR in de novo patients with PD using the data of initial clinical presentation and dopamine transporter PET scan. In this review, we summarized the results of these published studies. In particular, some premorbid experiences (i.e., physical activity and education) and modifiable factors (i.e., body mass index and white matter hyperintensity on brain image studies) could modulate an individual’s capacity to tolerate PD pathology, which can be maintained throughout disease progression.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • How long have you exercised in your life? The effect of motor reserve and current physical activity on cognitive performance
    Veronica Pucci, Carolina Guerra, Amanda Barsi, Massimo Nucci, Sara Mondini
    Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.2024; 30(1): 11.     CrossRef
  • Hippocampal Perfusion Affects Motor and Cognitive Functions in Parkinson Disease: An Early Phase 18F‐FP‐CIT Positron Emission Tomography Study
    Min Young Chun, Seok Jong Chung, Su Hong Kim, Chan Wook Park, Seong Ho Jeong, Hye Sun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn, Yong Jeong, Yun Joong Kim
    Annals of Neurology.2024; 95(2): 388.     CrossRef
  • Clinical severity in Parkinson’s disease is determined by decline in cortical compensation
    Martin E Johansson, Ivan Toni, Roy P C Kessels, Bastiaan R Bloem, Rick C Helmich
    Brain.2024; 147(3): 871.     CrossRef
  • Differences in [123I]Ioflupane Striatal Binding Between African American and White Patients
    Juebin Huang, Kevin J. Sullivan, Vani Vijayakumar
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology.2024; 52(2): 137.     CrossRef
  • Plasma extracellular vesicle synaptic proteins as biomarkers of clinical progression in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Chien-Tai Hong, Chen-Chih Chung, Ruan-Ching Yu, Lung Chan
    eLife.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Plasma extracellular vesicle synaptic proteins as biomarkers of clinical progression in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Chien-Tai Hong, Chen-Chih Chung, Ruan-Ching Yu, Lung Chan
    eLife.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Considering the response in addition to the challenge – a narrative review in appraisal of a motor reserve framework
    Daniel Zeller, Shawn Hiew, Thorsten Odorfer, Carine Nguemeni
    Aging.2024; 16(6): 5772.     CrossRef
  • The greatest loss of unpleasant smells may be related to the risk of more severe PD symptoms
    Shih-Chi Chiu, Ting-Chun Fang, Hsin-Bei Lei, Yu-Hsuan Lin, Ming-Hong Chang, Yi-Jen Guo
    Frontiers in Neurology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Lifestyle Modulators of Neuroplasticity in Parkinson’s Disease: Evidence in Human Neuroimaging Studies
    Silvia Paola Caminiti, Silvia Gallo, Federico Menegon, Andrea Naldi, Cristoforo Comi, Giacomo Tondo
    CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets.2024; 23(5): 602.     CrossRef
  • Defining the concept of reserve in the motor domain: a systematic review
    Andreina Giustiniani, Angelo Quartarone
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Structural underpinnings and long-term effects of resilience in Parkinson’s disease
    Verena Dzialas, Merle C. Hoenig, Stéphane Prange, Gérard N. Bischof, Alexander Drzezga, Thilo van Eimeren
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Motor progression marker for newly diagnosed drug‐naïve patients with Parkinson's disease: A resting‐state functional MRI study
    Yanbing Hou, Lingyu Zhang, Ruwei Ou, Qianqian Wei, Xiaojing Gu, Kuncheng Liu, Junyu Lin, Tianmi Yang, Yi Xiao, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
    Human Brain Mapping.2023; 44(3): 901.     CrossRef
  • The Concept of Motor Reserve in Parkinson's Disease: New Wine in Old Bottles?
    Merle C. Hoenig, Verena Dzialas, Alexander Drzezga, Thilo van Eimeren
    Movement Disorders.2023; 38(1): 16.     CrossRef
  • Patterns of striatal dopamine depletion and motor deficits in de novo Parkinson’s disease
    Seong Ho Jeong, Chan Wook Park, Hye Sun Lee, Yun Joong Kim, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn, Seok Jong Chung
    Journal of Neural Transmission.2023; 130(1): 19.     CrossRef
  • Sex Differences in Brain Structure in de novo Parkinson’s Disease: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Neuroimaging Study
    Hui Li, Xuejia Jia, Min Chen, Xiuqin Jia, Qi Yang
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2023; 13(5): 785.     CrossRef
  • Exploring the Complex Phenotypes of Impaired Finger Dexterity in Mild-to-moderate Stage Parkinson’s Disease: A Time-Series Analysis
    Pattamon Panyakaew, Kotchakorn Duangjino, Apiwoot Kerddonfag, Teerit Ploensin, Krerk Piromsopa, Chanon Kongkamol, Roongroj Bhidayasiri
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2023; 13(6): 975.     CrossRef
  • Prevention of Falls in Parkinson's Disease: Guidelines and Gaps
    Richard Camicioli, Meg E. Morris, Frederico Pieruccini‐Faria, Manuel Montero‐Odasso, Surim Son, David Buzaglo, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff, Alice Nieuwboer
    Movement Disorders Clinical Practice.2023; 10(10): 1459.     CrossRef
  • The incidence of deep venous thrombosis in Parkinson’s disease
    Emine Afsin, Zeliha Coşgun, Ramazan Kurul, Şule Aydın Türkoğlu
    Neurological Research.2023; 45(11): 1050.     CrossRef
  • Premorbid Educational Attainment and Long-Term Motor Prognosis in Parkinson’s Disease
    Seong Ho Jeong, Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Jin Ho Jung, Kyoungwon Baik, Yang Hyun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2022; 12(1): 129.     CrossRef
  • Parkinsonism and cerebrovascular disease
    Manisha Narasimhan, Raymond Schwartz, Glenda Halliday
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2022; 433: 120011.     CrossRef
  • Impact of α‐synuclein spreading on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway depends on the onset of the pathology
    Fanfan Sun, Armando G. Salinas, Severin Filser, Sonja Blumenstock, Jose Medina‐Luque, Jochen Herms, Carmelo Sgobio
    Brain Pathology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Premorbid cancer and motor reserve in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Yoon-Sang Oh, Sang-Won Yoo, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Kwang-Soo Lee, Joong-Seok Kim
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Behavioral Reserve in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia
    Su Hong Kim, Yae Ji Kim, Byung Hwa Lee, Peter Lee, Ji Hyung Park, Sang Won Seo, Yong Jeong
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Identifying the white matter structural network of motor reserve in early Parkinson's disease
    Yae Ji Kim, Chan Wook Park, Hye Won Shin, Hye Sun Lee, Yun Joong Kim, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn, Yong Jeong, Seok Jong Chung
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.2022; 102: 108.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of disease progression between brain-predominant Parkinson's disease versus Parkinson's disease with body-involvement phenotypes
    Dong-Woo Ryu, Sang-Won Yoo, Yoon-Sang Oh, Kwang-Soo Lee, Seunggyun Ha, Joong-Seok Kim
    Neurobiology of Disease.2022; 174: 105883.     CrossRef
  • Genetically-informed prediction of short-term Parkinson’s disease progression
    Hossein J. Sadaei, Aldo Cordova-Palomera, Jonghun Lee, Jaya Padmanabhan, Shang-Fu Chen, Nathan E. Wineinger, Raquel Dias, Daria Prilutsky, Sandor Szalma, Ali Torkamani
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Potential Link Between Cognition and Motor Reserve in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease
    Seok Jong Chung, Yae Ji Kim, Yun Joong Kim, Hye Sun Lee, Mijin Yun, Phil Hyu Lee, Yong Jeong, Young H. Sohn
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2022; 15(3): 249.     CrossRef
  • Local striatal volume and motor reserve in drug-naïve Parkinson’s disease
    Seong Ho Jeong, Eun-Chong Lee, Seok Jong Chung, Hye Sun Lee, Jin Ho Jung, Young H. Sohn, Joon-Kyung Seong, Phil Hyu Lee
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture in treating Parkinson disease
    Wei Xu, Sha OuYang, Zhenhai Chi, ZhiQin Wang, DaoCheng Zhu, RiXin Chen, GenPing Zhong, FengTing Zhang, GuiQin Zhou, SiWei Duan, Lin Jiao
    Medicine.2021; 100(10): e25095.     CrossRef
  • Differences in cause and 12-month follow-up outcome of parkinsonian symptoms in depressed older adults treated with antipsychotics: a case series
    Anastasios Politis, Nikolaos Kokras, Michael Souvatzoglou, Kostas Siarkos, Panagiotis Toulas, Constantin Potagas, Theodoros Hatzipanagiotou, Georgios Limouris, Panagiotis Alexopoulos
    BMC Psychiatry.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness and safety of moxibustion for Parkinson disease
    Yonghui Hou, Baile Ning, Yamin Liu, Ying Liu, Wenbin Fu, Zehuai Wen
    Medicine.2021; 100(23): e26256.     CrossRef
  • Glucocerebrosidase Mutations and Motor Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease
    Seok Jong Chung, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn, Yun Joong Kim
    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2021; 11(4): 1715.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of pupillometer results according to disease stage in patients with Parkinson’s disease
    Sooyeoun You, Jeong-Ho Hong, Joonsang Yoo
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Gender Differences in Age-Related Striatal Dopamine Depletion in Parkinson’s Disease
Jae Jung Lee, Jee Hyun Ham, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(3):130-135.   Published online September 10, 2015
  • 23,151 View
  • 126 Download
  • 28 Web of Science
  • 28 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objective Gender differences are a well-known clinical characteristic of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In-vivo imaging studies demonstrated that women have greater striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) activity than do men, both in the normal population and in PD patients. We hypothesize that women exhibit more rapid aging-related striatal DAT reduction than do men, as the potential neuroprotective effect of estrogen wanes with age.
Methods This study included 307 de novo PD patients (152 men and 155 women) who underwent DAT scans for an initial diagnostic work-up. Gender differences in age-related DAT decline were assessed in striatal sub-regions using linear regression analysis.
Results Female patients exhibited greater DAT activity compared with male patients in all striatal sub-regions. The linear regression analysis revealed that age-related DAT decline was greater in the anterior and posterior caudate, and the anterior putamen in women compared with men; we did not observe this difference in other sub-regions.
Conclusions This study demonstrated the presence of gender differences in age-related DAT decline in striatal sub-regions, particularly in the antero-dorsal striatum, in patients with PD, presumably due to aging-related decrease in estrogen. Because this difference was not observed in the sensorimotor striatum, this finding also suggests that women may not have a greater capacity to tolerate PD pathogenesis than do men.


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  • Impact of frailty and sex-related differences on postural control and gait in older adults with Parkinson's Disease
    Mathieu Dallaire, Alexandra Houde-Thibeault, Jérôme Bouchard-Tremblay, Enafa Anais Wotto, Sharlène Côté, Claudia Santos Oliveira, Suzy Ngomo, Rubens A. da Silva
    Experimental Gerontology.2024; 186: 112360.     CrossRef
  • Dysphagia Pattern in Early to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease Caused by Abnormal Pharyngeal Kinematic Function
    Ping Wang, Xinhui Chen, Miao Chen, Leilei Gao, Bing Xiong, Changmeng Ji, Qian Shen, Yuanqing Shen, Sheng Wu, Yanhong Pan, Jinhui Li, Bo Wang, Wei Luo
    Dysphagia.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cut-Off Value of Voluntary Peak Cough Flow in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Its Association with Severe Dysphagia: A Retrospective Pilot Study
    Kyeong-Woo Lee, Sang-Beom Kim, Jong-Hwa Lee, Seong-Woo Kim
    Medicina.2023; 59(5): 921.     CrossRef
  • The impact of COVID-19 on patients with Parkinson disease
    Esma KOBAK TUR, Buse Çağla ARI
    Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine.2023; 6(4): 815.     CrossRef
  • Worldwide trends in mortality related to Parkinson's disease in the period of 1994–2019: Analysis of vital registration data from the WHO Mortality Database
    Ioannis C. Lampropoulos, Foteini Malli, Olga Sinani, Konstantinos I. Gourgoulianis, Georgia Xiromerisiou
    Frontiers in Neurology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sex differences in Parkinson's Disease: An emerging health question
    Luiz Philipe de Souza Ferreira, Rafael André da Silva, Matheus Marques Mesquita da Costa, Vinicius Moraes de Paiva Roda, Santiago Vizcaino, Nilma R.L.L. Janisset, Renata Ramos Vieira, José Marcos Sanches, José Maria Soares Junior, Manuel de Jesus Simões
    Clinics.2022; 77: 100121.     CrossRef
  • Parkinson's disease in women: Mechanisms underlying sex differences
    Bhupesh Vaidya, Kritika Dhamija, Priyanka Guru, Shyam Sunder Sharma
    European Journal of Pharmacology.2021; 895: 173862.     CrossRef
  • Temporalis Muscle Thickness as an Indicator of Sarcopenia Is Associated With Long-term Motor Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease
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    The Journals of Gerontology: Series A.2021; 76(12): 2242.     CrossRef
  • Dopamine Transporter Imaging, Current Status of a Potential Biomarker: A Comprehensive Review
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    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2021; 22(20): 11234.     CrossRef
  • Sex‐specific association of urate and levodopa‐induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease
    J. H. Jung, S. J. Chung, H. S. Yoo, Y. H. Lee, K. Baik, B. S. Ye, Y. H. Sohn, P. H. Lee
    European Journal of Neurology.2020; 27(10): 1948.     CrossRef
  • Sex differences in primary delusional infestatation: An insight into etiology and potential novel therapy
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    Neuroscience Bulletin.2020; 36(10): 1123.     CrossRef
  • Predictors of Pharyngeal Dysphagia in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
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    Journal of Parkinson's Disease.2020; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Emerging Concepts of Motor Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease
    Seok Jong Chung, Jae Jung Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
    Journal of Movement Disorders.2020; 13(3): 171.     CrossRef
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  • Beneficial effect of estrogen on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in drug-naïve postmenopausal Parkinson’s disease
    Yang Hyun Lee, Jungho Cha, Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Young H. Sohn, Byoung Seok Ye, Phil Hyu Lee
    Scientific Reports.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Laura M. Cox, Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Amir Hadi Maghzi, Julia Vincentini, Howard L. Weiner
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    D. Georgiev, K. Hamberg, M. Hariz, L. Forsgren, G.-M. Hariz
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  • The relationship between subcortical brain volume and striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in healthy humans assessed with [11C]‐raclopride and [11C]‐(+)‐PHNO PET
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    Xiaoyuan Li, Li Xue, Jinfang Sun, Yanping Sun, Anmu Xie
    Neuroscience Letters.2017; 656: 72.     CrossRef
  • Trait impulsiveness is related to smaller post‐commissural putamen volumes in males but not females
    Fernando Caravaggio, Eric Plitman, Jun Ku Chung, Philip Gerretsen, Julia Kim, Yusuke Iwata, Mallar Chakravarty, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff‐Guerrero
    European Journal of Neuroscience.2017; 46(7): 2253.     CrossRef
  • Does smoking impact dopamine neuronal loss in de novo Parkinson disease?
    Yoonju Lee, Jungsu S. Oh, Seok Jong Chung, Su Jin Chung, Soo‐Jong Kim, Chung Mo Nam, Phil Hyu Lee, Jae Seung Kim, Young H. Sohn
    Annals of Neurology.2017; 82(5): 850.     CrossRef
  • The analysis of relationship between selected sociodemografic factors and disorders of speech organs in Parkinson`s patients
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  • Dose‐Response Analysis of the Effect of Carbidopa‐Levodopa Extended‐Release Capsules (IPX066) in Levodopa‐Naive Patients With Parkinson Disease
    Zhongping Lily Mao, Nishit B. Modi
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Apathy and Olfactory Dysfunction in Early Parkinson’s Disease
Jin Yong Hong, Mun Kyung Sunwoo, Jee Hyun Ham, Jae Jung Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H. Sohn
J Mov Disord. 2015;8(1):21-25.   Published online January 31, 2015
  • 16,539 View
  • 112 Download
  • 23 Web of Science
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective Olfactory and emotional dysfunctions are very common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Olfaction and emotions share common neuroanatomical substrates. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the association between olfactory and emotional dysfunctions in patients with PD.
Methods Parkinson’s disease patients who had been assessed for their olfactory function and neuropsychiatric symptoms including emotional dysfunction were included. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between low olfaction and different neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Results The patients with low olfaction (cross cultural smell identification test score ≤ 6) showed a higher prevalence of apathy when compared with those with high olfaction, whereas the frequencies of other neuropsychiatric symptoms were comparable between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of apathy/indifference [odds ratio (OR) = 2.859, p = 0.007], age 70 years or more (OR = 2.281, p = 0.009), and the male gender (OR = 1.916, p = 0.030) were significantly associated with low olfaction.
Conclusions Our results demonstrate that apathy/indifference is a unique emotional dysfunction associated with olfactory dysfunction in PD. The findings also suggest that PD patients with low olfaction have a high prevalence of apathy.


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